Structuring Effective Worked Examples

  title={Structuring Effective Worked Examples},
  author={Mark R. Ward and John Sweller},
  journal={Cognition and Instruction},
Under some conditions, substituting worked examples for problems or exercises enhances learning and subsequent problem solving. Under other conditions, worked examples are no more effective, and possibly less effective, than solving problems. Using cognitive load theory, we hypothesize that the critical factors for enhanced learning are whether the worked examples can direct attention appropriately and reduce cognitive load. It is suggested that worked examples requiring students to mentally… 

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