Structures at risk from pedicle screws in the proximal thoracic spine: computed tomography evaluation.

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Pedicle screw placement in the proximal thoracic spine may result in unwanted bicortical breach. An understanding of the potential structures at risk is paramount to safe screw placement. PURPOSE To assess the anatomic location of structures at risk with the placement of bicortical pedicle screw fixation in the proximal thoracic spine… (More)