Structured water layers adjacent to biological membranes.

  title={Structured water layers adjacent to biological membranes.},
  author={Michael J. Higgins and Martin Polc{\'i}k and Takeshi Fukuma and John E. Sader and Yoshikazu Nakayama and Suzanne P. Jarvis},
  journal={Biophysical journal},
  volume={91 7},
Water amid the restricted space of crowded biological macromolecules and at membrane interfaces is essential for cell function, though the structure and function of this "biological water" itself remains poorly defined. The force required to remove strongly bound water is referred to as the hydration force and due to its widespread importance, it has been studied in numerous systems. Here, by using a highly sensitive dynamic atomic force microscope technique in conjunction with a carbon… CONTINUE READING