Structure-specific glial response in a macaque model of neuroAIDS: multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 3 Tesla

@article{Wu2013StructurespecificGR,
  title={Structure-specific glial response in a macaque model of neuroAIDS: multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 3 Tesla},
  author={William E. Wu and Assaf Tal and Ke Zhang and James S. Babb and Eva-Maria Ratai and R. Gilberto Gonzalez and Oded Gonen},
  journal={AIDS},
  year={2013},
  volume={27},
  pages={2519–2528}
}
Objective:As ∼40% of persons with HIV also suffer neurocognitive decline, we sought to assess metabolic dysfunction in the brains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques, an advanced animal model, in structures involved in cognitive function. We test the hypothesis that SIV-infection produces proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI)-observed decline in the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and elevations in the glial marker, myo-inositol (mI… 
Longitudinal cerebral metabolic changes in pig-tailed macaques infected with the neurovirulent virus SIVsmmFGb
TLDR
The findings further demonstrate the efficacy of the SIVsmmFGb-infected macaque as a model to characterize central nervous system infection using novel neuroimaging approaches and also as a tool for exploration of novel and advanced neuroim imaging techniques in HIV/AIDS studies.
Early glial activation precedes neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex after SIV infection: A 3D, multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
TLDR
This work investigates whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H‐MRSI) detects early metabolic abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)‐infected rhesus monkey model of neuroAIDS.
Simian immunodeficiency virus transiently increases brain temperature in rhesus monkeys: detection with magnetic resonance spectroscopy thermometry
To evaluate brain temperature effects of early simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) thermometry (MRSt) and to determine
Visualizing the Immune System: Providing Key Insights into HIV/SIV Infections
TLDR
Merging imaging platforms with other cutting-edge technologies could lead to novel findings regarding the phenotype, function, and molecular signatures of particular immune cell targets, further promoting the development of new antiviral treatments and vaccination strategies.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 59 REFERENCES
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Reveals Neuroprotection by Oral Minocycline in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Accelerated NeuroAIDS
TLDR
Oral minocycline alleviates neuronal damage induced by the AIDS virus, and the recovery of this ratio was due to increases in NAA, indicating neuronal recovery, and decreases in Cr, likely reflecting downregulation of glial cell activation.
Global gray and white matter metabolic changes after simian immunodeficiency virus infection in CD8‐depleted rhesus macaques: proton MRS imaging at 3 T
TLDR
These metabolic changes are consistent with global WM (axonal) injury and glial activation, and suggest a possible GM host immune response.
A prospective longitudinal in vivo 1H MR spectroscopy study of the SIV/macaque model of neuroAIDS
TLDR
These observations support the use of drugs capable of controlling the viral replication and trafficking of virus into the CNS, and may help explain the reduction in incidence of HIV-associated dementia in the era of HAART despite the inability of most of those drugs to effectively enter the CNS.
Brain creatine elevation and N‐acetylaspartate reduction indicates neuronal dysfunction in the setting of enhanced glial energy metabolism in a macaque model of NeuroAIDS
TLDR
High creatine levels in a rapid progression macaque model of neuroAIDS may reflect enhanced high‐energy phosphate turnover in highly metabolizing activated astrocytes and microglia.
In vivo 1H MRS of brain injury and repair during acute SIV infection in the macaque model of neuroAIDS
TLDR
Acute SIV produces extensive metabolic abnormalities in the brain, which may reflect inflammation and neuronal injury, which are reversed with immunological control of the virus, and may explain the neurobehavioral symptoms associated with acute HIV infection.
Metabolite proton T2 mapping in the healthy rhesus macaque brain at 3 T
TLDR
The structure and metabolism of the rhesus macaque brain, an advanced model for neurologic diseases and their treatment response, is often studied noninvasively with MRI and 1H‐MR spectroscopy, and the estimated T2s in several gray and white matter regions are all within 10% of those reported in the human brain.
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that activated monocytes contribute to neuronal injury in SIV neuroAIDS.
TLDR
Early, consistent neuronal injury is found coincident with viremia and SIV infection/activation of monocyte subsets and the role of plasma virus and monocytes in contributing to CNS disease is defined.
Regional patterns of brain metabolites in AIDS dementia complex
Correlation of in vivo neuroimaging abnormalities with postmortem human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis and dendritic loss.
TLDR
In vivo structural magnetic resonance imaging may be a valuable adjunct in the assessment of patients at risk for developing HIV encephalitis and neurodegeneration because white-matter and cortical damage resulting from HIV disease are closely related.
Early brain injury in the SIV–macaque model of AIDS
TLDR
These results are the first direct evidence that neuronal injury occurs soon after infection and the exacerbation of injury with time suggests a connection between the early response of the central nervous system and dementia, which occurs late in the course of infection.
...
...