Structure of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) horn investigated by X‐ray computed tomography and histology with implications for growth and external form

  title={Structure of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) horn investigated by X‐ray computed tomography and histology with implications for growth and external form},
  author={Tobin L Hieronymus and Lawrence M. Witmer and Ryan C. Ridgely},
  journal={Journal of Morphology},
The nasal and frontal horns of two individuals of Ceratotherium simum were examined by x-ray computed tomography (CT scanning), gross observation of sectioned horn, and light microscopy of histological sections of the horn tissue. [] Key Result CT scans of both sets of horns reveal a periodic banding pattern that is evident upon gross observation of sections as darker bands of tissue.
A Comparative Study of Some Morphological and Microscopic IdentifyingFeatures of Genuine Rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) Horns and Fake Horns
Identifying features of genuine rhinoceros unicornis horns were properly established and the possibility of approximation of maturity of rhino horns is revealed.
The sandwich structure of keratinous layers controls the form and growth orientation of chicken rhinotheca
The rhinotheca structure described here will be an important and useful factor in the reconstruction of the beaks of birds in extinct taxa as the three layers are closely packed to each other at their boundaries.
White rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum horn development and structure: a deceptive optical illusion
This study study provides the first detailed description of the development and resultant structure of the rhinoceros horn, finding the unique solid structure which consists of a large number of tightly packed filaments is the result of the cellular orientation of squamous epithelium corneocytes.
Scanning electron microscopy: a potential forensic tool to identify a piece of rhinoceros horn
The characteristic “sub pores within a pore” signature of the ventral portion of rhinoceros horn has high potential for forensic identification and consequently, proving offences and convicting offenders.
The rhinoceros horn is a unique composite that is made up primarily of keratin. α-Keratin molecules form two-strand molecules that are arranged to form intermediate filaments (IFs). These IFs
Braincase With Natural Endocast of a Juvenile Rhinocerotinae From the Late Middle Pleistocene Site of Melpignano (Apulia, Southern Italy)
The neurocranium has been restored and the anatomy of both the brain and the paranasal sinuses has been obtained and compared with those of juvenile and adult Pleistocene rhinoceroses, which evidence a different morphological development of the inner cranial anatomy in fossil and extant African species.
The experience in reconstructing of the head of Elasmotherium (Rhinocerotidae)
We have reconstructed Elasmotherium’s head based on complete intact skulls morphology analysis. The bony protuberance on the frontal bone was covered with a horny substance that protected the dome’s
Vascularization of the Gray Whale Palate (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus): Soft Tissue Evidence for an Alveolar Source of Blood to Baleen
The results indicate that the lateral foramina in edentulous mysticete fossils are bony correlates for the presence of baleen, and the results can be used to help identify bony canals and foramina that have been used to reconstruct balean in extinct mysticetes that retained teeth in adulthood.
Nondestructive, Epi‐Illumination Surface Microscopic Characterization of Surface Discontinuity in Bone: A New Approach Offers a Descriptive Vocabulary and New Insights
Epi‐illumination microscopy bridges macroscopic and histological examination, providing greater understanding of the pathology, at no cost to the integrity of the material studied, while providing discriminatory descriptions of phenomena for which pathophysiology has not yet been clarified.


Structure of Rhinoceros Horn
The present investigation has confirmed that rhinoceros horn has a tubular (filamentous) structure comparable with that described in other horn by Trautmann and Fiebiger, quoting Nickel.
Morphological character of crystalline components present in saiga horn.
Investigation of the ultrastructure of saiga-antelope (Saiga tatarica) horn for proposing the mechanism of the initial mineralization found octacalcium phospate (OCP) to be the precursor in the initial Mineralization step, indicating in a nucleation of mineral on the keratin fibers.
The mineralization of crystalline inorganic components in Japanese serow horn.
The present study indicated that the mineralization of Japanese serow horn directly related with deposition Ca-deficient HA among the keratin fibers among the Keratin fibers.
Fracture toughness of horns and a reinterpretation of the horning behaviour of bovids
The keratinous horns of bovids are used in intraspecific combat to gain access to females in oestrus and must avoid dehydration of their horns due to the desiccating effect of the environment.
The mineral phase of calcified cartilage, bone and baleen
  • F. Pautard
  • Materials Science
    Calcified Tissue Research
  • 2005
A comparison of the morphology and envi ronment of the mineral phase of calcified cartilage, bone and baleen (a calcified keratin), using the same methods of investigation, has re-appraisal of some of the features of phosphate calcification.
Nail, Claw, Hoof and Horn Keratin
The morphology, ultrastructure and growth of the human nail is reviewed; the morphology of these keratins is given in Chap.
A scanning electron microscope study of the morphology of rhinoceros horn.
The morphology of rhinoceros horn as revealed by the scanning electron microscope is reported, and two different-shaped cortical cell units are shown to exist.
Formation, Chemical Composition and Function of Melanin Pigments
Skin pigmentation is related to the number, size, type, and distribution pattern of melanin-containing cytoplasmic particles, i.e. melanosomes, which are products of secretory cells, melanocytes, that are present in the basal layer of the epidermis.
Theory of the growth and evolution of feather shape.
The first explicit theory of the growth of feather shape is presented, defined as the outline of a pennaceous feather vane, and it is proposed that the absolute growth rate of the barbs and rachis ridges, not the vertical growth rate, is uniform throughout the follicle.
Conservation Implications of Patterns of Horn Regeneration in Dehorned White Rhinos
The demand for rhino horn has led to drastic declines in numbers of rhinos in Asia and Africa. Although all trade in rhino products has been illegal since the mid‐1970s, a lucrative illegal market