The structure of prothrombin fragment 1, solved at 2.8 A resolution (1 A = 0.1 nm) by a combination of multiple and single isomorphous replacement methods utilizing solvent flattening, has been refined by restrained least-squares methods (R = 0.24), solvent not included, using fairly stringent restraints on the molecular geometry and individual thermal parameters. The inner kringle loop possesses significantly lower B-values than the outer loops even though the former also constitutes a surface of the folded kringle structure. This surface forms the Lys sub-site of the fibrin binding site of other kringles. The hydrogen bonding network and ion pair interactions of fragment 1 appear to maintain a compact folded structure among the various loops of the kringle structure. On the other hand, since there is only one hydrogen bond between the kringle and its preceding 30 residues, considerable flexibility is suggested for the Gla-domain consistent with its disorder in crystals. A chitobiose has been located at the Asn77 glycosylation site, but only a single N-acetyl-glucosamine is ordered at Asn101. The lysine binding site region of other kringles is not properly developed in fragment 1, accounting for its lack of Lys/fibrin affinity. Most of the conserved sequence among 11 different kringles is associated with either: (1) protecting the inner loop disulfides Cys87-127, Cys115-139 upon which the folding is based; or (2) a requirement of the lysine binding site. The remainder of the conservation is generally associated with the ten reverse turns of the folding; of these 40 residues, or about half the sequence, 14 are conserved among eight different turns. The intermolecular packing consists of infinite helical columns of fragment 1 molecules related by a crystallographic 4(3) screw axis, which are held together by van der Waals' interactions of aromatic clusters from different molecules related by a crystallographic 2-fold rotation axis.