Apoptosis, Annexin A5 and Anti-annexin A5 Antibodies in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome Apoptoza, Aneksin A5 I Antitela Aneksina A5 U Antifosfolipidnom Sindromu
- Mirjana Bearevi, Svetlana Ignjatovi, Nada Majki-Singh, Kratak sadraj
Annexins constitute a family of phospholipid- and Ca(2+)-binding proteins involved in a variety of membrane-related processes. The property of several annexins, including annexin A5, to self-organize at the surface of lipid membranes into 2D ordered arrays has been proposed to be functionally relevant in cellular contexts. To further address this question, we investigated the high-resolution structure of annexin A5 trimers in membrane-bound 2D crystals by cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM). A new 2D crystal form was discovered, with p32(1) symmetry, which is significantly better ordered than the 2D crystals reported before. A 2D projection map was obtained at 6.5 A resolution, revealing protein densities within each of the four domains characteristic of annexins. A quantitative comparison was performed between this structure and models generated from the structure of the soluble form of annexin A5 in pseudo-R3 3D crystals. This analysis indicated that both structures are essentially identical, except for small local changes attributed to membrane binding. As a consequence, and contrary to the common view, annexin A5 molecules maintain their bent shape and do not flatten upon membrane binding, which implies either that the four putative Ca(2+) and membrane-binding loops present different types of interaction with the membrane surface, or that the membrane surface is locally perturbed. We propose that the trimerization of annexin A5 molecules is the relevant structural change occurring upon membrane binding. The evidence that 2D arrays of annexin A5 trimers are responsible for its in vitro property of blood coagulation inhibition supports this conclusion.