Structure and meteorology of the middle atmosphere of Venus: Infrared remote sensing from the Pioneer Orbiter

  title={Structure and meteorology of the middle atmosphere of Venus: Infrared remote sensing from the Pioneer Orbiter},
  author={Fredric W. Taylor and Reinhard Beer and Moustafa T. Chahine and David J. Diner and Lee S. Elson and Robert D. Haskins and Daniel J. Mccleese and John V. Martonchik and P. E. Reichley and S. P. Bradley and John Delderfield and J. T. Schofield and C. B. Farmer and Lucien Froidevaux and John Shing Chau Leung and M. Terry Coffey and John Gille},
  journal={Journal of Geophysical Research},
  • F. Taylor, R. Beer, J. Gille
  • Published 30 December 1980
  • Environmental Science, Physics
  • Journal of Geophysical Research
The structure and variability of the middle atmosphere of Venus (60 to 140 km) were studied from the Pioneer Venus orbiter by using an infrared remote sensing instrument developed from those on terrestrial weather satellites. The wavelengths observed were selected to allow the vertical temperature profile, the albedo, the cloud opacity profile, and the far infrared opacity due to water vapor to be inferred from the data. The measured temperature field has been used to model the dynamics of the… 

Measurements of the mean, solar‐fixed temperature and cloud structure of the middle atmosphere of Venus

Data from the orbiter infrared radiometer (OIR) of the Pioneer Venus mission have allowed the global structure of the middle atmosphere of Venus to be studied in detail for the first time. Between 4

Measurements of thermal structure and thermal contrasts in the atmosphere of Venus and related dynamical observations: Results From the four Pioneer Venus Probes

Thermal structure of the atmosphere of Venus, and differences in structure with latitude (up to 60°) and clock hour (from midnight to 8 A.M.) have been measured in situ from an altitude of 126 km to

The Atmospheric Dynamics of Venus

We review our current knowledge of the atmospheric dynamics of Venus prior to the Akatsuki mission, in the altitude range from the surface to approximately the cloud tops located at about 100 km

Global maps of Venus nightside mean infrared thermal emissions obtained by VIRTIS on Venus Express

Exploration of Venus with the Venera-15 IR Fourier spectrometer and the Venus Express planetary Fourier spectrometer

The infrared spectrometry of Venus in the range 6–45 μm allows one to sound the middle atmosphere of Venus in the altitude range 55–100 km and its cloud layer. This experiment was carried out onboard

Venus upper atmosphere structure

From analysis of the orbiter atmospheric drag (OAD) data obtained from the orbital decay of the Pioneer Venus orbiter from December 9, 1978, to August 7, 1979, atmospheric densities have been



Polar clearing in the Venus clouds observed from the Pioneer Orbiter

PIONEER Venus 1 was put into a 24-h orbit around the planet on 4 December 1978. Since then, it has made remote sensing observations of the clouds and the overlying atmosphere at IR, visible and UV

Infrared Remote Sounding of the Middle Atmosphere of Venus from the Pioneer Orbiter

Orbiter infrared measurements of the Venus atmosphere in the 60- to 140-kilometer region show very small diurnal temperature differences near the cloud tops, increasing somewhat at higher levels. The

Vertical structure of the atmosphere of Venus from Pioneer Venus orbiter radio occultations

Between December 1978 and February 1979 the Pioneer Venus orbiter spacecraft returned some 140 S band and X band radio occultation measurements of the Venus atmosphere. Results from 13 measurements,

Zonal and meridional circulation of the lower atmosphere of Venus determined by radio interferometry

From earth-based Doppler and interferometric radio observations we determined the paths, in three dimensions and as functions of time, taken by the Pioneer probes as they fell to the surface of

Temperature, Cloud Structure, and Dynamics of Venus Middle Atmosphere by Infrared Remote Sensing from Pioneer Orbiter

One of the new discoveries is a "dipole" structure at high latitudes, with two hot spots rotating around the pole, surrounded by banks of cold cloud.

The Thermal Balance of Venus in Light of the Pioneer Venus Mission

Instruments flown on the Pioneer Venus orbiter and probes measured many of the properties of the atmosphere of Venus which control its thermal balance and support its high surface temperature.

Preliminary results from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter infrared radiometer: Temperature and dynamics in the upper atmosphere

  • L. Elson
  • Environmental Science, Physics
  • 1979
Data from the infrared radiometer aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are examined and interpreted within the context of zonally averaged temperatures and circulation in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

Short-Term Cyclic Variations and Diurnal Variations of the Venus Upper Atmosphere

Temperature variations of the same period in the stratosphere are discovered, which are tentatively interpreted as planetary-scale waves that may propagate upward producing the periodic variations in the thermosphere and exosphere.

Venus: Vertical Structure of Stratospheric Hazes from Mariner 10 Pictures

Abstract High-resolution pictures of the limb of Venus taken by the Mariner 10 television camera indicate the presence of tenuous haze layers high in the stratosphere. At least two distinct layers

Polar cloud structure as derived from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter

Pioneer Venus orbiter radio occultation data taken on orbits 9, 18, and 19 at S band (13.06 cm) are used to obtain vertical absorption coefficient profiles of the Venus clouds in the north polar