Structure and functional analysis of a marine bacterial carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster and astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway proposed at the gene level

  title={Structure and functional analysis of a marine bacterial carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster and astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway proposed at the gene level},
  author={Norihiko Misawa and Yoshinori Satomi and Keiji Kondo and Akihiro Yokoyama and Susumu Kajiwara and T. Saito and Takeshi Ohtani and Wataru Miki},
  journal={Journal of Bacteriology},
  pages={6575 - 6584}
A carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster for the production of astaxanthin was isolated from the marine bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum. This cluster contained five carotenogenic genes with the same orientation, which were designated crtW, crtZ, crtY, crtI, and crtB. The stop codons of individual crt genes except for crtB overlapped the start codons of the following crt genes. Escherichia coli transformants carrying the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthesis genes provide suitable… 
Elucidation of a Carotenoid Biosynthesis Gene Cluster Encoding a Novel Enzyme, 2,2′-β-Hydroxylase, from Brevundimonas sp. Strain SD212 and Combinatorial Biosynthesis of New or Rare Xanthophylls
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Carotenoid biosynthesis in Gloeobacter violaceus PCC4721 involves a single crtI-type phytoene desaturase instead of typical cyanobacterial enzymes
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Early steps in carotenoid biosynthesis: sequences and transcriptional analysis of the crtI and crtB genes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and overexpression and reactivation of crtI in Escherichia coli and R. sphaeroides
The transcription initiation point is located and it is shown that R. sphaeroides possesses an oxygen-regulated CrtI-type phytoene desaturase gene that forms a transcriptional operon with crtB, and evidence for the existence of a crtIB operon is presented.
Conserved enzymes mediate the early reactions of carotenoid biosynthesis in nonphotosynthetic and photosynthetic prokaryotes.
The nucleotide sequence of three genes from the carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster of Erwinia herbicola are reported, which encode homologs of the CrtB, CrtE, and CrtI proteins of Rhodobacter capsulatus, a purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of early enzymes from this pathway.
New functional assignment of the carotenogenic genes crtB and crtE with constructs of these genes from Erwinia species.
In vitro reactions from extracts of E. coli carrying the crtE gene or a complete carotenogenic gene cluster in which crtB was deleted showed an elevated conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into geranylgeranyl pyroph phosphate (GGPP), which strongly indicate that the crTE gene encodes GGPP synthase.
Analysis of the gene cluster encoding carotenoid biosynthesis in Erwinia herbicola Eho13.
DNA sequence analysis revealed that the entire sequence contains at least five genes, which are transcribed in the same direction, and an RNA-PCR study suggested that the five crt genes were organized in an operon and were transcribed from the promoter upstream from crtE.
Elucidation of the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by functional analysis of gene products expressed in Escherichia coli
The most important function of carotenoid pigments, especially beta-carotene in higher plants, is to protect organisms against photooxidative damage, and this work has elucidated for the first time the pathway for biosynthesis of theseCarotenoids at the level of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, using bacterial carOTenoid biosynthesis genes.
Molecular cloning and expression in photosynthetic bacteria of a soybean cDNA coding for phytoene desaturase, an enzyme of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway.
It is concluded that pds1 is a nuclear gene encoding a phytoene desaturase enzyme that, as its microbial counterparts, contains sequence motifs characteristic of flavoproteins.
Functional Complementation in Escherichia coli of Different Phytoene Desaturase Genes and Analysis of Accumulated Carotenes
Three different phytoene desaturase genes, from Rhodobacter capsulatus, Erwinia uredovora, and Synechococcus PCC 7942, have been functionally complemented with a gene construct from E. uredovora
Molecular structure and enzymatic function of lycopene cyclase from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC7942.
Results from DNA gel blot hybridization experiments suggest that, like two earlier genes in the pathway, the Synechococcus gene encoding lycopene cyclase is homologous to plant and algal genes encoding this enzyme.