Structure and function of the prehensile tentilla of Euplokamis (Ctenophora, Cydippida)

  title={Structure and function of the prehensile tentilla of Euplokamis (Ctenophora, Cydippida)},
  author={George Owen Mackie and Claudia E. Mills and C. L. Singla},
SummaryEuplokamis has coiled tentilla on its tentacles, which can be discharged, flicking out at high velocity, when triggered by contact with prey. The tentillum adheres to prey by means of numerous colloblasts. Discharge, which takes 40–60 ms, is accomplished by contraction of striated muscles, found only in this genus among the Ctenophora. Restoration of the coiled state is attributable to passive, elastic components of the mesogloea. Rows of “boxes” (fluid-filled compartments) along the… 

Tentacular apparatus ultrastructure in the larva of Bolinopsis infundibulum (Lobata: Ctenophora)

A light and electron microscopic study of the tentacular apparatus in the larvae of Bolinopsis infundibulum from the White Sea revealed stem cells, colloblasts, and cask cells at various stages of differentiation and putative myocytes progenitors in the tentacle root.

Comparative feeding behavior of planktonic ctenophores.

  • S. Haddock
  • Environmental Science
    Integrative and comparative biology
  • 2007
This account categorizes ctenophore feeding methods using published reports as well as new observations using submersibles and blue-water scuba diving to help explain the high morphological diversity in this relatively small phylum.

Cilia and the life of ctenophores

Post-embryonic patterns of comb row development in larval and adult stages are described and compared with regeneration of comb plates after surgical removal, and ciliary coordination has been elucidated by experiments on a variety of ctenophores.

Behavioural and ultrastructural studies on the sedentary platyctenean ctenophore Vallicula multiformis

Behaviour and its structural basis were investigated in Vallicula multiformis, suggesting that extension is generated by water flow induced drag forces and protrusion which precedes extension results from rebound elasticity of coiled mesogloeal fibrils.

A sticky thicket of glue cells: A comparative morphometric analysis of colloblasts in 20 species of comb jelly (phylum Ctenophora)

Comparative anatomy of the diversity of ctenophore colloblasts and morphometrics of the collosphere, external secretion granules, and spiral filament are performed to describe the functional diversity and feeding ecology of the interesting and controversial phylum Ctenophora.

First recordings of the ctenophore Euplokamis sp (Ctenophora, Cydippida) in Swedish coastal waters and molecular identification of this genus

Molecular identification using the nuclear 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer region I region (ITS1) revealed that Euplokamis sp.

Comparative neuroanatomy of ctenophores: Neural and muscular systems in Euplokamis dunlapae and related species

The organization of neuromuscular systems in eight ctenophore species focusing on Euplokamis dunlapae is described, showing that even with substantial environmental differences, the basal organization of neural systems is conserved among c tenophores.

The Genome of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and Its Implications for Cell Type Evolution

The genome of the ctenophore the warty comb jelly or sea walnut, Mnemiopsis leidyi, is sequenced and it is concluded that c tenophores alone, not sponges or the clade consisting of both ctenphores and cnidarians, are the most basal extant animals.


Support is shown for the diversity of biochemical adaptations found throughout the phylum Ctenophora, and subsequent studies may benefit by treating each group within the phyla individually.

Independent evolution of striated muscles in cnidarians and bilaterians

It is shown that a muscle protein core set, including a type II myosin heavy chain (MyHC) motor protein characteristic of striated muscles in vertebrates, was already present in unicellular organisms before the origin of multicellular animals.



Über Tentakel und Colloblasten der Ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus

Tentacles and colloblasts of the Ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus have been investigated light- and electron microscopically and the question whether the colloblast stalks are contractile or not deserves further in vivo observations.


The colloblast appears to be a disposable capture cell and a new scheme of its organization is described and discussed with respect to functional mechanics and phylogeny.

Non-motile sensory cilia and neuromuscular junctions in a ctenophore independent effector organ

  • G. Horridge
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1965
The separate co-ordination of movements of extension, retraction and bending requires that certain types of sensory cells be connected specifically, if in directly, with muscle fibres of a particular directionality, which provides a primitive example of specificity of connexions which must imply two overlapping nerve nets.

Le Système Nerveux des Cténaires

The author refutes the nervous nature previously attributed to the ciliated cells of the meridional grooves and describes the very peculiar arrangement of the presynaptic elements which suggest chemical transmission in the nerve-net.

Zur Entwicklung der Kolloblasten von Pleurobrachia pileus (Ctenophora)

Electron microscopic investigation of young Pleurobrachia pileus has shown that the colloblasts develop from ciliated cells containing rich endoplasmic reticulum. The cilium is connected with the

Specialized Connexions between Nerve Cells and Mesenchymal Cells in Ctenophores

Evidence from electron microscopy of specialized junctions between these mesenchymal cells and neighbouring muscle and nerve cells in Beroe forskälii and B. ovata is obtained.

The nervous system of ctenophores III. Ultrastructure of synapses

The pre-synaptic triad is found both in interneural synapses—which may be polarized, symmetrical or reciprocal — and in various neuro-receptor and neuro-effector junctions.

Use of the Pisces IV Submersible for Zooplankton Studies in Coastal Waters of British Columbia

A method for calculating plankton densities from estimates of mean interanimal distances is described, and several species were found to exist within unexpectedly narrow and sharply defined layers, often at densities greatly surpassing density estimates based on net samples.

Influence of Siphonophore Behavior upon Their Natural Diets: Evidence for Aggressive Mimicry

Morphology, behavior, and diet suggest that these two species of weak swimmers attract large prey by mimicking other zooplankton.

Isolation of functional giant smooth muscle cells from an invertebrate: structural features of relaxed and contracted fibers.

The giant smooth muscle fibers of a ctenophore were isolated by enzymatic digestion and calcium-containing mitochondrial granules were found in the coiled cells but not in either the relaxed or the fully shortened cells.