Structure and circulation of the Venus atmosphere

@article{Schubert1980StructureAC,
  title={Structure and circulation of the Venus atmosphere},
  author={Gerald Schubert and Curtis Covey and Anthony D. Genio and Lee S. Elson and Gerald M. Keating and Alvin Seiff and Richard E. Young and Jay Apt and Charles C. Counselman and Arvydas J. Kliore and Sanjay S. Limaye and Henry E. Revercomb and Lawrence A. Sromovsky and Verner E. Suomi and Fredric W. Taylor and Richard Woo and Ulf von Zahn},
  journal={Journal of Geophysical Research},
  year={1980},
  volume={85},
  pages={8007-8025}
}
Pioneer Venus has revealed important new features of the structure and the circulation of Venus' atmosphere. The temperature decreases from nearly 750 K at the surface to about 180 K at about 100 km. Above 100 km, there is a marked contrast between the day-side and the night-side thermal structures. On the day side there is a thermosphere in which temperatures increase with height to an exospheric temperature of about 300 K. On the night side there is a ‘cryosphere’ in which temperatures… 

Thermal structure of the Venusian atmosphere from the sub-cloud region to the mesosphere as observed by radio occultation

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AMONG the most intriguing features of the atmosphere of Venus is the presence of cellular structures near and downwind of the subpolar point. Ultraviolet images from the Mariner 10 and Pioneer Venus

The nightside cloud-top circulation of the atmosphere of Venus.

TLDR
The weakness of the mean meridional flow at the cloudTop implies that the poleward branch of the Hadley circulation exists above the cloud top and that the equatorward branch exists in the clouds.
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