Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL‐1 receptor adaptor proteins

  title={Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL‐1 receptor adaptor proteins},
  author={Tanya M Watters and Elaine F Kenny and Luke A.J. O’Neill},
  journal={Immunology and Cell Biology},
The Toll/IL‐1 receptor (TIR) domain plays a central role in Toll‐like receptor (TLR) signalling. All TLRs contain a cytoplasmic TIR domain, which, upon activation, acts as a scaffold to recruit adaptor proteins. The adaptor proteins MyD88, Mal, TRIF, TRAM and SARM are also characterized by the presence of a TIR domain. MyD88, Mal, TRIF and TRAM associate with the TLRs via homophilic TIR domain interactions whereas SARM utilizes its TIR domain to negatively regulate TRIF. It is well established… 
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