Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions

  title={Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions},
  author={Zinzi Bailey and Nancy Krieger and Madina Ag{\'e}nor and Jasmine Graves and Natalia Linos and Mary T Bassett},
  journal={The Lancet},

Racism, COVID-19, and Health Inequity in the USA: a Call to Action

A concrete, actionable path forward is offered to address structural racism and advance health equity for Black Americans through anti-racism, implicit bias, and cultural competency training; capacity building; community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiatives; and validated metrics for longitudinal monitoring of efforts to address health disparities.

Culture, Race, and Health: Implications for Racial Inequities and Population Health.

This paper synthesizes analogous but fragmented concepts of cultural threat related to social and racial inequity as examined in public and population health, psychology, sociology, communications, media studies, and law to frame cultural racism as cultural systems that promote false presumptions of white superiority relative to non-whites.

Structural Racism: A Call to Action for Health and Health Disparities Research.

Understanding the disproportionate burden of stressor exposure experienced by racialized groups as a result of interpersonal discrimination is important, as is attending to how such discrimination impacts health and health disparities throughout the lifecourse and across generations.

Racism and Health: Evidence and Needed Research.

An overview of the evidence linking the primary domains of racism-structural racism, cultural racism, and individual-level discrimination-to mental and physical health outcomes is provided.

Institutional Racism and Health: a Framework for Conceptualization, Measurement, and Analysis

Despite growing interest in the health-related consequences of racially discriminatory institutional policies and practices, public health scholars have yet to reach a consensus on how to measure and

Improving The Measurement Of Structural Racism To Achieve Antiracist Health Policy

Three key areas that require scholarly attention to advance antiracist health policy research are identified: historical context, geographical context, and theory-based novel quantitative and qualitative methods that capture the multifaceted and systemic properties of structural racism as well as other systems of oppression.

The Health Consequences of Structural Racism: Implications for Anti-Racism Policy and Practices in Social Institutions

Author(s): Thomas, Marilyn Denise | Advisor(s): Allen, Amani M | Abstract: The main objective of this dissertation was to investigate the health consequences of structural racism operating implicitly

Confronting Racism in Environmental Health Sciences: Moving the Science Forward for Eliminating Racial Inequities

The EHS research community should develop metrics to measure racism and a set of guidelines on the use and interpretation of race and ethnicity within the environmental sciences and take action to eliminate racial disparities.

From describing disparities to understanding why disparities exist: Anti‐racist methods to support dental public health research

There are new opportunities to explore how qualitative and mixed methods research can serve as drivers for both social justice and health equity, while building and sustaining a diverse research workforce that can better close these disparities and offer antiracist solutions to oral health inequities.

Foundations in Racism: a Novel and Contemporary Curriculum for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows

The University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) CAP Fellowship Program’s novel Foundations in Racism curriculum is described, first piloted in 2017 to first-year child psychiatry fellows, providing a roadmap for other psychiatry training programs aiming to develop and deliver similar curricula.




  • G. GeeC. Ford
  • Political Science
    Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race
  • 2011
Several ways of conceptualizing structural racism are reviewed, with a focus on social segregation, immigration policy, and intergenerational effects, to more seriously consider the multiple dimensions of structural racism as fundamental causes of health disparities.

Discrimination and Health Inequities

  • N. Krieger
  • Political Science
    International journal of health services : planning, administration, evaluation
  • 2014
Even as the number of investigations has dramatically expanded, the scope remains narrow: studies remain focused primarily on interpersonal discrimination, and scant research investigates the health impacts of structural discrimination, a gap consonant with the limited epidemiologic research on political systems and population health.

Elucidating the role of place in health care disparities: the example of racial/ethnic residential segregation.

Increasing evidence indicates that racial/ethnic residential segregation is a key factor driving place-based health care inequalities, and closer attention to address research gaps has implications for advancing and strengthening the literature.

The state of research on racial/ethnic discrimination in the receipt of health care.

Better instrumentation, innovative methodology, and strategies are needed for identifying and tracking racial/ethnic discrimination in health care settings.

Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care.

  • A. Nelson
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Journal of the National Medical Association
  • 2002
Broad sectors—including healthcare providers, their patients, payors, health plan purchasers, and society at large—should be made aware of the healthcare gap between racial and ethnic groups in the United States.

Disenfranchisement: Historical Underpinnings and Contemporary Manifestations

ABSTRACTFor racial and ethnic minorities, voting is equated with citizenship and decision-making power. However, despite proclamations of freedom, justice, and equality, state legislatures across the

The Race Discrimination System

To understand the persistence of racial disparities across multiple domains (e.g., residential location, schooling, employment, health, housing, credit, and justice) and to develop effective