Structural insights into the coordination of plastid division by the ARC6–PDV2 complex

  title={Structural insights into the coordination of plastid division by the ARC6–PDV2 complex},
  author={Wenhe Wang and Jinyu Li and Qingqing Sun and Xiaoyu Yu and Weiwei Zhang and Ning Jia and Chuanjing An and Yiqiong Li and Yanan Dong and Fengjiao Han and Ning Chang and Xiaomin Liu and Zhiling Zhu and You Yu and Shilong Fan and Maojun Yang and Shi-Zhong Luo and Hongbo Gao and Yue Feng},
  journal={Nature Plants},
Chloroplasts divide by binary fission, which is accomplished by the simultaneous constriction of the FtsZ ring on the stromal side of the inner envelope membrane, and the ARC5 ring on the cytosolic side of the outer envelope membrane. The two rings are connected and coordinated mainly by the interaction between the inner envelope membrane protein ARC6 and the outer envelope membrane protein PDV2 in the intermembrane space. The underlying mechanism of this coordination is unclear to date. Here… 
The chloroplast division protein ARC6 acts to inhibit disassembly of GDP-bound FtsZ2
Chloroplasts host photosynthesis and fulfill other metabolic functions that are essential to plant life. They have to divide by binary fission to maintain their numbers throughout cycles of cell
PDV1 and PDV2 Differentially Affect Remodeling and Assembly of the Chloroplast DRP5B Ring1
This study suggests that the mechanochemical properties of DRP5B on the chloroplast surface are dynamically regulated by its GTPase activity and major binding partners.
ARC3 Activation by PARC6 Promotes FtsZ-Ring Remodeling at the Chloroplast Division Site
A model whereby activation of midplastid-localized ARC3 by PARC6 facilitates Z-ring remodeling during chloroplast division by promoting Z- ring dynamics and reveal a novel function for MORN domains in regulating protein–protein interactions is led to.
Insights into the Mechanisms of Chloroplast Division
  • Y. Yoshida
  • Biology
    International journal of molecular sciences
  • 2018
Surprisingly, the mechanisms driving plastid division resemble those of mitochondrial division, indicating that these division machineries likely developed from the same evolutionary origin, providing a key insight into how endosymbiotic organelles were established.
The Arabidopsis arc5 and arc6 mutations differentially affect plastid morphology in pavement and guard cells in the leaf epidermis
The results support the notion that ARC5 is dispensable in the process of equal division of epidermal plastids, and indicate that dysfunctions in ARC5 and ARC6 differentially affect plastid replication among mesophyll cells, PCs, and GCs within a single leaf.
Bacterial Heterologous Expression System for Reconstitution of Chloroplast Inner Division Ring and Evaluation of Its Contributors
Bacterial system using the model bacterium Escherichia coli to dissect and understand the chloroplast division machinery—an evolutionary hybrid structure composed of both bacterial (inner) and host-derived (outer) components.
Electron Tomography Analysis of Thylakoid Assembly and Fission in Chloroplasts of a Single-Cell C4 plant, Bienertia sinuspersici
Electron tomography analyses indicated that chloroplast enlargement is sustained by thylakoid growth and that invaginations from the inner envelope membrane contributed to thylAKoid assembly.
How do plastids and mitochondria divide?
The structural frameworks of the plastid and mitochondrial-division machineries in both lower and higher eukaryotes are reviewed and compared and fundamental issues that need to be resolved to reveal the underlying mechanisms of plastids and mitochondrial division are highlighted.
AT2G21280 Only Has a Minor Role in Chloroplast Division
The previous names of AT2G21280 are thought to be inappropriate, as it is shown that this gene is well conserved in plants and cyanobacteria, suggesting its function is important, which can be revealed in the future study.
Chloroplast division: A handshake across membranes
The chloroplast evolved from a symbiotic cyanobacterium and it still divides like one, and reciprocal communication across the double membrane is essential for coordinated fission of the organelle.


Arabidopsis ARC6 Coordinates the Division Machineries of the Inner and Outer Chloroplast Membranes through Interaction with PDV2 in the Intermembrane Space[W]
The connection between ARC6 and PDV2 represents the evolution of a plant-specific adaptation to coordinate the assembly and activity of the endosymbiont- and host-derived plastid division components.
Crystal structure of a conserved domain in the intermembrane space region of the plastid division protein ARC6
The crystal structure of the ARC6 IMS region bears a structurally uncharacterized domain of unknown function, DUF4101, that is highly conserved among ARC6 and Ftn2 proteins and provides new clues into howARC6 and its homologs contribute to chloroplast and cyanobacterial cell division.
Roles of Arabidopsis PARC6 in Coordination of the Chloroplast Division Complex and Negative Regulation of FtsZ Assembly1[OPEN]
A detailed topological analysis of Arabidopsis PARC6 is reported, which shows that P ARC6 has a single transmembrane domain and a topology resembling that of ARC6 and suggests that PARC 6 coordinates the inner Z ring and outer DRP5B ring through interaction with FtsZ2 and PDV1 during chloroplast division.
PDV1 and PDV2 Mediate Recruitment of the Dynamin-Related Protein ARC5 to the Plastid Division Site
The results indicate that plastid division involves the stepwise localization of FtsZ, PDV1, and ARC5 at the division site and that PDV 1 and PDV2 together mediate the recruitment of ARC5 to the midplastid constriction at a late stage of division.
Division and dynamic morphology of plastids.
The dynamic morphology of plastids, especially nongreen plASTids, is also considered here, particularly in relation to the production of stromules and plastid-derived vesicles and their possible roles in cellular communication and plastsid functionality.
ARC5, a cytosolic dynamin-like protein from plants, is part of the chloroplast division machinery
The results indicate that the chloroplast division apparatus is of mixed evolutionary origin and that it shares structural and mechanistic similarities with both the cell division machinery of bacteria and the dynamin-mediated organellar fission machineries of eukaryotes.
Plastid division: evolution, mechanism and complexity.
The currentUnderstanding of the mechanism of chloroplast division in higher plants is reviewed with an emphasis on how recent findings are beginning to shape the understanding of the function and evolution of the components.
Plastid Division Is Driven by a Complex Mechanism That Involves Differential Transition of the Bacterial and Eukaryotic Division Rings Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at
Biochemical and immunocytochemical investigations suggest that the FtsZ ring;–based system, which originated from a plastid ancestor, cyanobacteria, and the plastsid-dividing ring;-based system form a complex and are involved inplastid division by distinct modes.