Structural insights into the coordination of plastid division by the ARC6–PDV2 complex

@article{Wang2017StructuralII,
  title={Structural insights into the coordination of plastid division by the ARC6–PDV2 complex},
  author={Wenhe Wang and Jinyu Li and Qingqing Sun and Xiaoyu Yu and Weiwei Zhang and Ning Jia and Chuanjing An and Yiqiong Li and Yanan Dong and Fengjiao Han and Ning Chang and Xiaomin Liu and Zhiling Zhu and You Yu and Shilong Fan and Maojun Yang and Shi-Zhong Luo and Hongbo Gao and Yue Feng},
  journal={Nature Plants},
  year={2017},
  volume={3}
}
Chloroplasts divide by binary fission, which is accomplished by the simultaneous constriction of the FtsZ ring on the stromal side of the inner envelope membrane, and the ARC5 ring on the cytosolic side of the outer envelope membrane. The two rings are connected and coordinated mainly by the interaction between the inner envelope membrane protein ARC6 and the outer envelope membrane protein PDV2 in the intermembrane space. The underlying mechanism of this coordination is unclear to date. Here… 
The chloroplast division protein ARC6 acts to inhibit disassembly of GDP-bound FtsZ2
Chloroplasts host photosynthesis and fulfill other metabolic functions that are essential to plant life. They have to divide by binary fission to maintain their numbers throughout cycles of cell
PDV1 and PDV2 Differentially Affect Remodeling and Assembly of the Chloroplast DRP5B Ring1
TLDR
This study suggests that the mechanochemical properties of DRP5B on the chloroplast surface are dynamically regulated by its GTPase activity and major binding partners.
ARC3 Activation by PARC6 Promotes FtsZ-Ring Remodeling at the Chloroplast Division Site
TLDR
A model whereby activation of midplastid-localized ARC3 by PARC6 facilitates Z-ring remodeling during chloroplast division by promoting Z- ring dynamics and reveal a novel function for MORN domains in regulating protein–protein interactions is led to.
Insights into the Mechanisms of Chloroplast Division
  • Y. Yoshida
  • Biology
    International journal of molecular sciences
  • 2018
TLDR
Surprisingly, the mechanisms driving plastid division resemble those of mitochondrial division, indicating that these division machineries likely developed from the same evolutionary origin, providing a key insight into how endosymbiotic organelles were established.
The Arabidopsis arc5 and arc6 mutations differentially affect plastid morphology in pavement and guard cells in the leaf epidermis
TLDR
The results support the notion that ARC5 is dispensable in the process of equal division of epidermal plastids, and indicate that dysfunctions in ARC5 and ARC6 differentially affect plastid replication among mesophyll cells, PCs, and GCs within a single leaf.
Bacterial Heterologous Expression System for Reconstitution of Chloroplast Inner Division Ring and Evaluation of Its Contributors
TLDR
Bacterial system using the model bacterium Escherichia coli to dissect and understand the chloroplast division machinery—an evolutionary hybrid structure composed of both bacterial (inner) and host-derived (outer) components.
Electron Tomography Analysis of Thylakoid Assembly and Fission in Chloroplasts of a Single-Cell C4 plant, Bienertia sinuspersici
TLDR
Electron tomography analyses indicated that chloroplast enlargement is sustained by thylakoid growth and that invaginations from the inner envelope membrane contributed to thylAKoid assembly.
How do plastids and mitochondria divide?
TLDR
The structural frameworks of the plastid and mitochondrial-division machineries in both lower and higher eukaryotes are reviewed and compared and fundamental issues that need to be resolved to reveal the underlying mechanisms of plastids and mitochondrial division are highlighted.
AT2G21280 Only Has a Minor Role in Chloroplast Division
TLDR
The previous names of AT2G21280 are thought to be inappropriate, as it is shown that this gene is well conserved in plants and cyanobacteria, suggesting its function is important, which can be revealed in the future study.
Chloroplast division: A handshake across membranes
TLDR
The chloroplast evolved from a symbiotic cyanobacterium and it still divides like one, and reciprocal communication across the double membrane is essential for coordinated fission of the organelle.
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