DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) catalyzes changes in DNA topology by cleaving and rejoining one strand of the double stranded (ds)DNA. Eukaryotic Top1s are the cellular target of the plant-derived anticancer indole alkaloid camptothecin (CPT), which reversibly stabilizes the Top1-dsDNA complex. However, CPT-producing plants, including Camptotheca acuminata, Ophiorrhiza pumila and Ophiorrhiza liukiuensis, are highly resistant to CPT because they possess point-mutated Top1. Here, the adaptive convergent evolution is reported between CPT production ability and mutations in their Top1, as a universal resistance mechanism found in all tested CPT-producing plants. This includes Nothapodytes nimmoniana, one of the major sources of CPT. To obtain a structural insight of the resistance mechanism, molecular dynamics simulations of CPT- resistant and -sensitive plant Top1s complexed with dsDNA and topotecan (a CPT derivative) were performed, these being compared to that for the CPT-sensitive human Top1. As a result, two mutations, Val617Gly and Asp710Gly, were identified in O. pumila Top1 and C. acuminata Top1, respectively. The substitutions at these two positions, surprisingly, are the same as those found in a CPT derivative-resistant human colon adenocarcinoma cell line. The results also demonstrated an increased linker flexibility of the CPT-resistant Top1, providing an additional explanation for the resistance mechanism found in CPT-producing plants. These mutations could reflect the long evolutionary adaptation of CPT-producing plant Top1s to confer a higher degree of resistance.