Structural correlates of function in the “opercularis” muscle of amphibians

@article{Becker2004StructuralCO,
  title={Structural correlates of function in the “opercularis” muscle of amphibians},
  author={R. P. Becker and R. Lombard},
  journal={Cell and Tissue Research},
  year={2004},
  volume={175},
  pages={499-522}
}
SummaryThis study characterizes the fine structure of the “opercularis” muscles of selected frogs and salamanders (Genera: Hyla; Desmognathus; Ambystoma). The “opercularis” muscle originates on the shoulder girdle and inserts on the opercular plate in the fenestra ovalis of the otic capsule. Each of the three genera used exhibits one of the major gross dispositions of this muscle found in amphibians. In each case the “opercularis” muscle contains large numbers of tonic fibers: 80% in Hyla; 90… 
Histochemical studies on the amphibian opercularis muscle (Amphibia)
SummaryHistochemical studies of the opercularis muscle of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) provide evidence that the opercularis muscle of anurans is a
Biomechanics of vibration reception in the bullfrog,Rana catesbeiana
TLDR
The role of the OPS in reception of vibrations was examined in bullfrogs tested in various postures that manipulated differential motion between the shoulder girdle and skull, suggesting that the resulting differential motion of the operculum and inner ear fluids can produce waves that stimulate appropriate end organs.
Vibrometric studies of the middle ear of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana II. The operculum.
TLDR
An alternative or additional role for the opercularis system is proposed, involving the protection of the inner ear from high-amplitude displacements of the stapes footplate during breathing and vocalisation.
The Effects of Body Size on the Evolution of the Amphibian Middle Ear
TLDR
This chapter will examine how body size may guide the evolution of mechanisms of acoustic reception in amphibians, and set forward hypotheses about the relationship between body size and acoustic function.
Hearing in Plethodontid Salamanders: A Review
TLDR
It is suggested that sufficient extratympanic hearing in salamanders and reduced reliance on vocal communication has relaxed selection on the auditory system and allowed for the structural diversity of the salamander ear.
Mechanics of the frog ear
TLDR
The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct, and the basilar papilla functions mainly as a single auditory filter which provides a model system for testing hypotheses concerning emission generation.
Pathways for Sound Transmission to the Inner Ear in Amphibians
TLDR
Adaptations in frogs and other tetrapods might well be analogous rather than homologous, allowing one to examine critically assumptions about what is required of an ear.

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The organisation of the myofibrils and the sarcoplasmic reticulum in frog slow muscle fibres has been compared with that in twitch fibres. It has been found that the filaments have the same length in
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