Structural basis for messenger RNA movement on the ribosome

  title={Structural basis for messenger RNA movement on the ribosome},
  author={Gulnara Yusupova and Lasse B. Jenner and Bernard Rees and Dino Moras and Marat Yusupov},
Translation initiation is a major determinant of the overall expression level of a gene. The translation of functionally active protein requires the messenger RNA to be positioned on the ribosome such that the start/initiation codon will be read first and in the correct frame. Little is known about the molecular basis for the interaction of mRNA with the ribosome at different states of translation. Recent crystal structures of the ribosomal subunits, the empty 70S ribosome and the 70S ribosome… 

Structured mRNAs Regulate Translation Initiation by Binding to the Platform of the Ribosome

A structural view of translation initiation in bacteria

Visualization of ligands on the ribosome has been achieved by cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography studies, which has helped to understand the mechanism of translation initiation at the molecular level.

Structural aspects of messenger RNA reading frame maintenance by the ribosome

The data elucidate the mechanism by which hypermodified nucleoside 2-methylthio-N6 isopentenyl adenosine at position 37 in tRNAPheGAA stabilizes mRNA-tRNA interactions in all three tRNA binding sites and allow rationalization of how modification deficiencies of ms2i6A37 in t RNAs may lead to shifts of the translational reading frame.

Translation enhancer improves the ribosome liberation from translation initiation.

Investigating the effects of the SD and enhancer sequences on the binding kinetics of the 30S ribosomal subunits to mRNAs and their translation efficiencies found a 16-fold translation efficiency could be achieved by introducing a tandem repeat of adenine sequences (A20) between theSD and translation enhancers.

Recent Advances in Archaeal Translation Initiation

This review focuses on archaeal translation initiation highlighting its relationships with either the eukaryotic or the bacterial world and the use of leaderless and leaderless mRNAs is analyzed.

Kinetic checkpoint at a late step in translation initiation.

Translation initiation site of mRNA is selected through dynamic interaction with the ribosome

  • Yi-Lan ChenJ. Wen
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2022
It is shown that a short ribosome-specific sequence in the upstream followed by an unstructured downstream sequence is a favorable initiation site for ribosomes to distinguish unfavorable structured sequences that may not act as the mRNA translation initiation site.

Decoding in the Absence of a Codon by tmRNA and SmpB in the Ribosome

The structure shows how SmpB plays the role of both the anticodon loop of tRNA and portions of mRNA to facilitate decoding in the absence of an mRNA codon in the A site of the ribosome and explains why the tmRNA-SmpB system does not interfere with normal translation.



Translational Operator of mRNA on the Ribosome: How Repressor Proteins Exclude Ribosome Binding

The ribosome of Thermus thermophilus was cocrystallized with initiator transfer RNA (tRNA) and a structured messenger RNA (mRNA) carrying a translational operator to suggest a general way in which mRNA control elements must be placed on the ribosomes to perform their regulatory task.

Alternative occupancy of a dual ribosomal binding site by mRNA affected by translation initiation factors.

The results suggest that, in the absence of initiation factors, the mRNA occupies a ribosomal "stand-by" site which is close to or includes the region where the Shine-Dalgarno interaction takes place; in the presence of the factors,the mRNA is shifted away from the stand-by site, towards another ribosome site with similar affinity for the mRNA.

Crystal Structure of the Ribosome at 5.5 Å Resolution

The crystal structure of the complete Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome containing bound messenger RNA and transfer RNAs (tRNAs) at 5.5 angstrom resolution is described, suggesting coupling of the 20 to 50 angstrom movements associated with tRNA translocation with intersubunit movement.

Structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit

The crystal structure of the 30S subunit from Thermus thermophilus, refined to 3 Å resolution, is reported, which will facilitate the interpretation in molecular terms of lower resolution structural data on several functional states of the ribosome from electron microscopy and crystallography.

From stand-by to decoding site. Adjustment of the mRNA on the 30S ribosomal subunit under the influence of the initiation factors.

The identification of the specific sites of both mRNA and rRNA and individual ribosomal proteins involved in the crosslinking provide direct evidence for the occurrence of a partial relocation of the mRNA on the 30S ribosome subunits under the influence of the factors.

Recognition of Cognate Transfer RNA by the 30S Ribosomal Subunit

Crystal structures of the 30S ribosomal subunit in complex with messenger RNA and cognate transfer RNA in the A site, both in the presence and absence of the antibiotic paromomycin, have been solved

Translation initiation in Escherichia coli: sequences within the ribosome‐binding site

The translational roles of the Shine‐Dalgarno sequence, the initiation codon, the space between them, and the second codon have been studied and are consistent with a simple kinetic model in which a variety of rate constants contribute to the process of translation initiation.