Structural balance: a generalization of Heider's theory.

  title={Structural balance: a generalization of Heider's theory.},
  author={Dorwin Cartwright and Frank Harary},
  journal={Psychological review},
  volume={63 5},
A persistent problem of psychology has been how to deal conceptually with patterns of interdependent properties. This problem has been central, of course, in the theoretical treatment by Gestalt psychologists of phenomenal or neural configurations or fields (12, 13, 15). It has also been of concern to social psychologists and sociologists who attempt to employ concepts referring to social systems (18). Heider (19), reflecting the general field-theoretical approach, has considered certain… 
Balance theories: two reconstructions and the problem of intended applications
Balance theories were an important research program in social psychology and sociology. Initiated by the Austrian psychologist Fritz Heider a number of theories with a different degree of complexity
Comments Concerning the Position of Theories in the Behavioral Sciences
The importance of developing theories has been incessantly expressed in sociological literature. Robert K. Merton has stated repeatedly that the major task of sociologists today is to develop sets of
Computer simulation of Freud's counterwill theory: extension to elementary social behavior.
The extension process was accomplished by synthesizing concepts from many different theories in personality and social psychology into equations linking two multiple-loop feedback systems to form a suprasystem, which supports the utility of a synthetic approach to the construction of quantitative theories concerning small social systems.
Balance Theory, Unit Relations, and Attribution: The Underlying Integrity of Heiderian Theory
Fritz Heider's theory of social perception is reviewed, and the close connection between attribution, balance, and unit relationship are examined, primarily through Heider's own writings. Attribution
F. Heider (1946) put forward a hypothesis known under the name of "balance theory". It might be summarized in the following way. Three relations are contained in triad composed of a person p, another
A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept.
This theoretical integration of social psychology's main cognitive and affective constructs was shaped by 3 influences: (a) recent widespread interest in automatic and implicit cognition, (b)
A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept.
The balanced identity design is introduced as a method to test correlational predictions of the theory and revealed that predicted consistency patterns were strongly apparent in the data for implicit (IAT) measures but not in those for parallel explicit (self-report) measures.
Twenty five on: Yet another version of cognitive dissonance theory?
The aim of this article is to highlight, 25 years on, the innovations of Festinger's theory of dissonance as regards its conception of cognitive functioning. Analysis of the dissonance ratio, on the
CHAPTER 3 Discriminative Validity
Donald Campbell has made many contributions of broad methodological, epistemological, and practical importance to psychology as a science. Within his discussions of methodological issues, validity


Dynamics in Psychology
IT is good to moot a book of this quality in days when the non-academic world is measuring the value of science too exclusively by its immediate practical applications. If this attitude were to
Principles of Gestalt Psychology.
When I first conceived the plan of writing this book I guessed, though I did not know, how much effort it would cost to carry it out, and what demands it would put on a potential reader. And I
A Mathematical Model for Group Structures
Many kinds of theories have been developed to explain human behavior. They may be classified in many ways - in terms of outstanding men, of schools of psychology, in terms of the emphasis placed upon
Attitudes and cognitive organization.
  • F. Heider
  • Psychology
    The Journal of psychology
  • 1946
A comparison of attitudes and cognitive Organization in the context of war and post-war Europe shows marked differences in the attitudes of men and women towards one another and towards Europe in general.
Identification of the Liaison Persons of an Organization Using the Structure Matrix
Linear graphs have been utilized by several authors to provide a geometric depiction of the structure of a group. Graphs will be defined in the next section where it will also be shown that they are
Influence through social communication.
  • K. Back
  • Psychology
    Journal of abnormal psychology
  • 1951
Results indicate that an increase in cohesiveness, independent of its nature, will produce greater effort to reach an agreement.
The Analysis of Sociograms using Matrix Algebra
Interpersonal communication in small groups.
An experimental study in which amount of pressure toward uniformity and degree to which members perceived the group as homogeneously composed was manipulated was manipulated.
Graph Theory As A Mathematical Model In Social Science