Structural and Functional Evolution of Vertebrate Neuroendocrine Stress Systems

@article{Denver2009StructuralAF,
  title={Structural and Functional Evolution of Vertebrate Neuroendocrine Stress Systems},
  author={Robert J. Denver},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2009},
  volume={1163}
}
  • R. Denver
  • Published 1 April 2009
  • Biology
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
The vertebrate hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA; or interrenal) axis plays pivotal roles in animal development and in physiological and behavioral adaptation to environmental change. The HPA, or stress axis, is organized in a hierarchical manner, with feedback operating at several points along the axis. Recent findings suggest that the proteins, gene structures, and signaling pathways of the HPA axis were present in the earliest vertebrates and have been maintained by natural selection owing… 

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