Structural analysis of the regulatory region of the human corticotropin releasing hormone gene

  title={Structural analysis of the regulatory region of the human corticotropin releasing hormone gene},
  author={Nikos C. Vamvakopoulos and Michael Karl and Vanessa Mayol and T. Gomez and Constantine A. Stratakis and Andrew N. Margioris and George P. Chrousos},
  journal={FEBS Letters},

Structural organization of the 5' flanking region of the human corticotropin releasing hormone gene.

The nucleotide sequence of the proximal 3625 nucleotides 5' flanking the major mRNA start site of the human corticotropin releasing hormone gene (hCRH) is determined and several putative regulatory elements are identified, which might confer estrogen regulatability to the hCRH gene.

Structural and functional conservation of vertebrate corticotropin-releasing factor genes: evidence for a critical role for a conserved cyclic AMP response element.

The findings show that the basic regulatory elements of the CRF gene responsible for stressor-induced activation arose early in vertebrate evolution and have been maintained by strong positive selection.

Evidence of direct estrogenic regulation of human corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression. Potential implications for the sexual dimophism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction.

Gel retardation and immunoprecipitation demonstrated specific association between the perfect half-palindromic EREs of hCRH gene and the DNA binding domain of hER in vitro, which may constitute the basis of sexual dimorphism in the expression of the CRH gene in the central nervous system and periphery.

Calcium/calmodulin kinase IV pathway is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the corticotropin-releasing hormone gene promoter in neuronal cells.

Not only the cAMP/PKA but also the calcium/CaMKIV signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of CRH gene expression, which may play an important role in the excitation-mediated regulation ofCRH synthesis.

Trans-acting factors dictate the species-specific placental expression of corticotropin-releasing factor genes in choriocarcinoma cell lines.

These studies using human and rodent choriocarcinoma cell lines as models of placental trophoblasts demonstrate dominant effects of cellular trans-acting factors, rather than DNA sequence differences, in dictating the species-specific placental expression of CRF.

Hormonal regulation of human corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression: implications for the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction.

Since its discovery, it has become evident that the role of CRH is much wider than initially thought and acts in synergy with arginine vasopressin and, perhaps, other factors to regulate pituitary ACTH secretion and ultimately the activity of the pituitsary-adrenal axis.

In Vivo and Targeted Inactivation in Embryonic Stem Cells

Using a highly sensitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method, expression of CRH mRNA is found in adrenal, ovary, testis, gut, heart, anterior pituitary, lung, and spleen, in addition to cerebral cortex and hypothalamus.

Phorbol Ester Stimulates Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Gene Promoter Activity Through a cAMP Regulatory Element in Primary Placental Cells

PA stimulates CRH gene transcriptional activity through the CRE, suggesting that cross-talk between PKC and protein kinase A signaling pathways targets this regulatory element in placental cells.



Isolation and sequence analysis of the human corticotropin‐releasing factor precursor gene.

The deduced amino acid sequence of human corticotropin‐releasing factor exhibits seven amino acid substitutions in comparison with the ovine counterpart.

Complete nucleotide sequence of the human corticotropin-beta-lipotropin precursor gene.

Comparison of the 5'-flanking sequences of the human, bovine and mouse corticotropin-beta-lipotropin precursor genes reveals the presence of a highly conserved region, which contains sequences of 14-15 base pairs homologous with sequences located upstream of the mRNA start site of other glucocorticoid-regulated genes.

Rat corticotropin-releasing hormone gene: sequence and tissue-specific expression.

Analysis of the nucleotide sequence homology between the human and rat CRH genes reveals several highly conserved regions including the CRH peptide-encoding sequence and the 5'-flanking sequence.

Primary structure and evolution of rat growth hormone gene.

The rat growth hormone gene was isolated on a cloned 11.4-kilobase EcoRI-generated DNA fragment from a bacteriophage "library" of chromosomal DNA and the complete primary structure of the gene and the 5' and 3'-flanking regions was determined.

Identification of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element in the rat corticotropin-releasing hormone gene.

The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of the rat CRH gene have been examined in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells transiently transfected with a chimeric gene containing

The Rat Corticotropin‐releasing Hormone Gene a

The isolation and characterization of the rat corticotropin releasing hormone gene is described and the regional distribution of expression parallels previously documented immunocytochemical demonstrations and supports the hypothesis that CRH peptides have multiple roles in different tissues.

Regulation of human corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate in a transformed mouse corticotroph cell line.

These effects in a well characterized continuous cell culture system demonstrate pretranslational regulation of CRH expression by a cAMP-dependent pathway.

Characterization and gestational regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA in human placenta.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of ACTH secretion, has been detected by RIA in extracts of human placenta. We wished to determine whether