Structural Reduction in Evolution

@article{Brace1963StructuralRI,
  title={Structural Reduction in Evolution},
  author={Charles Loring Brace},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={1963},
  volume={97},
  pages={39 - 49}
}
  • C. Brace
  • Published 1 January 1963
  • Biology
  • The American Naturalist
1. While there is no doubt that currently accepted factors (mutation, selection, genetic drift, and migration) (Neel and Schull, 1954; Dobzhansky, 1955a) play a major role in determining the direction of evolution, it is suggested that a process of considerable importance has been overlooked. The probable effect of mutations will be towards structural reduction. If the structure controlled by the locus in question has no adaptive significance, then it will be reduced in the course of time. 2… 
Pleiotropy in the Evolution of Structural Reduction and of Dominance
TLDR
The hypothesis of almost universal pleiotropy, which I accepted, was the basis for both my primary objection to Fisher's hypothesis and my interpretation of structural reduction in evolution.
Environment, Tooth Form, and Size in the Pleistocene
  • C. Brace
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of dental research
  • 1967
TLDR
An examination of the available evidence allows one to generalize concerning the morphological changes that have taken place in the hominid line during the Pleistocene.
Observations on Structural Reduction in Evolution
  • T. Prout
  • Biology
    The American Naturalist
  • 1964
TLDR
The problem of structural reduction in evolution constitutes a special case of the more general problem of seemingly non-adaptive evolutionary changes and it is difficult to imagine how such characters in themselves directly contribute to the differences in adaptation.
“Neutral theory” and the dynamics of the evolution of “Modern” human morphology
TLDR
The logic behind the “neutral theory” in molecular genetics is very similar to that applied to what happens to morphological characteristics when selection ceases, that random changes in the neutral part of the genome have no other consequences.
Vestigialization and Loss of Nonfunctional Characters
TLDR
Reduction and total loss of characters are common evolutionary phenomena and most explanations of evolutionary reductions invoke indirect selection through energy economy or antagonistic pleiotropy arguments, while some invoke the effects of accumulation of neutral mutations.
The role of natural selection and evolutionary rates in the origin of higher levels of organization.
TLDR
This study would like to analyze several aspects of natural selection and to show how these relate to changes observed in the fossil record.
LOSS OF NONFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERS
TLDR
Reduction and total loss of characters are common evolutionary phenomena and most explanations of evolutionary reductions invoke indirect selection through energy economy or antagonistic pleiotropy arguments, while some invoke the effects of accumulation of neutral mutations.
EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS OF CAVE‐DWELLING FISHES OF THE GENUS ASTYANAX
TLDR
The genic character and degree of variability in troglobitic and epigean populations of the characid fish Astyanax mexicanus in Mexico are compared to show the impact of climatic changes associated with glaciation on population genetics.
Structural reduction through the "probable mutation effect". A critique with questions regarding human evolution.
  • R. Holloway,
  • Biology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1966
TLDR
It is concluded that while Brace's adaptation of Sewall Wright's concept of “mutation pressure” is probably valid and useful in explaining certain aspects of structural reduction in human evolution, it has more credibility if Wright's original observations regarding pleiotrophy are included.
In search of evolutionary developmental mechanisms: the 30-year gap between 1944 and 1974.
  • B. Hall
  • Biology
    Journal of experimental zoology. Part B, Molecular and developmental evolution
  • 2004
The approach I have elected in this retrospective of how I became a student of evo-devo is both biographical and historical, a case study along the lines of Waddington's The Evolution of an
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 63 REFERENCES
VESTIGIAL CHARACTERS OF TERMITES AND PROCESSES OF REGRESSIVE EVOLUTION
TLDR
It is expected that the complementarity of the positive and negative aspects of evolution may aid us in understanding evolutionary processes as a whole.
The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection
TLDR
Although it is true that most text-books of genetics open with a chapter on biometry, closer inspection will reveal that this has little connexion with the body of the work, and that more often than not it is merely belated homage to a once fashionable study.
The “Sewall Wright Effect”
TLDR
This paper criticised the theory of Sewall Wright, which claims that the subdivision of a population into small isolated or semi-isolated colonies has had important evolutionary effects; and this through the agency of random fluctuation of gene ratios, due to random reproduction in a small population, which is completely fatal to the theory.
Genetic drift and natural selection in experimental populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura.
  • T. Dobzhansky, N. Spassky
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1962
TLDR
The indeterminacy of the outcomes of the selection processes in populations of geographically mixed origins may be due to experimental populations containing far too few flies to have more than a fraction of the possible genotypes actually realized, according to this working hypothesis.
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life
TLDR
A man is unworthy of the name of a man of science who, whatever may be his special branch of study, has not materially altered his views on some important points within the last twelve years.
From the Greeks to Darwin
  • H. Osborn
  • Psychology
    The American Naturalist
  • 1895
THE LAST volume of the reports of the Challenger Expedition has been published, and English biologists are reviewing the work. A late number of our esteemed contemporary "Natural Science," consists
Genes, Enzymes, and Inherited Diseases
  • I. Brandt
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
  • 1962
TLDR
This book is a timely review of the present state of mycology and recent advances in the knowledge of fungi and fungous diseases and attempts to evaluate some clinical results recently observed with regimens presently used in treating both superficial and deep mycotic infections.
Animal Evolution.
  • A. H. Clark
  • Philosophy
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1922
TLDR
The animal evolution is one of the literary work in this world in suitable to be reading material and this book gives reference, but also it will show the amazing benefits of reading a book.
General Nature of the Genetic Code for Proteins
TLDR
A very elegant series of genetic experiments by which Crick, Brenner, and their collaborators proved that the genetic code for protein was a triplet code using an acridine dye to induce mutations in a specific, well-studied gene of a virus that attacked the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Animal Biology
TLDR
Such general headings as nutrition, respiration, excretion, reproduction, co-ordination, origin and continuity of life, etc., show how deliberately the author has discarded the familiar 'type* system in order to give his readers a clearer conception of animal life.
...
...