Strong circumstantial evidence for ethanol toxicosis in Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum)

  title={Strong circumstantial evidence for ethanol toxicosis in Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum)},
  author={Hailu Kinde and Eileen Foate and Emily S. Beeler and Fransisco. A. Uzal and Janet D. Moore and R. Poppenga},
  journal={Journal of Ornithology},
Several flocks of Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) were found dead after colliding with solid objects such as picture windows, plexiglass, and fences. Necropsy examination revealed that all birds had engorged themselves with over-ripe berries of the Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) and had hemorrhages in the breast muscles and the coelomic cavity due to hepatic rupture. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed no underlying pathological conditions. Ethanol was detected at… 
Laboratory biology and impact of a stem-boring weevil Apocnemidophorus pipitzi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Schinus terebinthifolia
Feeding damage by adults and larvae significantly increased leaf abscission and reduced leaf and root biomass accumulation and growth of potted plants with and without exposure to weevil herbivory was compared over an 11-month period.
Research article: life history and host range of Prochoerodes onustaria, an unsuitable classical biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree
The results presented here suggest that P. onustaria is highly polyphagous, feeding and completing development on members of two related plant families, and is not suitable for biological control of Brazilian peppertree in the U.S.A.
Host range testing and life history of the defoliator Hymenomima nr. memor: an unsuitable biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolia in the U.S.A.
Host range of larvae of Hymenomima nr. memor (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) was examined in quarantine to evaluate its suitability as a biological control of Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolia and, due to the broad host range exhibited by H. memor larvae, this species will not be considered as a Biological control agent of S. tere Binhifolia in the continental U.S.A.
The Natural Biology of Dietary Ethanol, and its Implications for Primate Evolution
  • R. Dudley
  • Environmental Science
    Alcohol and Humans
  • 2019
Detailed measurements of ethanol concentrations within fruit and nectar, together with behavioural, physiological, and genomic comparisons among frugivores and nectivores, are now necessary to further test the ‘drunken monkey’ hypothesis.
Effects of Ethanol on Fruit Selection by Frugivorous Birds
The results of this study suggest that birds do not show a preference for fruits with high ethanol concentrations, in conjunction with previous studies.
Human Evolution and Dietary Ethanol
A review of English language citations subsequent to publication of the “drunken monkey” hypothesis and current field studies of ethanol content within fruits consumed by free-ranging chimpanzees suggest chronic low-level exposure to this psychoactive molecule in the authors' closest living relatives.
Effects of ethanol on health and performance of poultry
This review article is intended to help decision-makers with implementing the guidelines for avoiding this misuse of alcohol with poultry, and researchers to identify low dose effects of ethanol on performance and avian model-related parameters.
Birds Drinking Alcohol: Species and Relationship with People. A Review of Information from Scientific Literature and Social Media
Which species and sources of ethanol are most frequently used by captive and wild birds are investigated and parrots in particular can be potentially good candidates for future restricted laboratory studies on the effect of ethanol on birds and their relationship with humans.
Diseases of wild birds of the orders Passeriformes and Columbiformes - a review of conditions reported from the United Kingdom and an analysis of results from wild bird disease surveillance in Scotland 1994-2013
This chapter discusses Wildlife – declines, supplementary feeding, rehabilitation and disease surveillance, which took place in Scotland 2005-2008, and alternative ways of providing food to garden birds.


Suspected ethanol toxicosis in two wild cedar waxwings.
Several wild cedar waxwings fell from a rooftop following ingestion of overwintered hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) pommes, and there was pericardial hemorrhage, although no microscopic abnormalities were found.
How do Frugivores Process Fruit? Gastrointestinal Transit and Glucose Absorption in Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla Cedrorum)
Gut function in six Cedar Waxwings fed artificial fruits that contained barium-labeled pulp and seeds was examined to suggest that functional adaptations to frugivory are likely more important than structural adaptations.
Chronic intake of fermented floral nectar by wild treeshrews
A detailed account of chronic alcohol intake by mammals as part of a coevolved relationship with a plant is provided and it is discovered that seven mammalian species in a West Malaysian rainforest consume alcoholic nectar daily from flower buds of the bertam palm, which they pollinate.
Adaptive radiation of the digestive system , heart and wings of Turdus pilaris , Bombycilla garrulus , Sturnus vulgaris , Pyrrbula pyrrbula , Pinicola enucleator and Loxia pytyopsittacus
The ability of an animal to secure ample energy and nutrient supplies from its environment, and to mobilize these physiologically, determines to a large extent its life-history, distribution,
Alkoholaufnahme und Alkoholabbau beim Europäischen StarSturnus vulgaris
Under field conditions normal alcohol concentration as found in fermentated fruits and berries are so low, that — in connection with high ADH-activity — birds obviously have no problems to cope with alcohol.
Annual diet of Cedar Waxwings based on U.S. Biological Survey records (1885-1950) compared to diet of American Robins : Contrasts in dietary patterns and natural history
The diet of Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) is described using records of gut contents collected by the U.S. Biological Survey, suggesting contrasting digestive strategies in waxwings and thrushes.
Handling efficiency and berry size preferences of cedar waxwings
Within the range of sizes tested, Cedar Waxwings preferentially selected blueberries that were more efficiently handled and that produced the highest rate of sugar intake, which is incidental to maximizing the ratio of energetic benefit to costs associated with manipulating and swallowing the fruit.
Drinking and Flying: Does Alcohol Consumption Affect the Flight and Echolocation Performance of Phyllostomid Bats?
Background In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption
The Evolutionary Ecology of Ethanol Production and Alcoholism1
  • D. Levey
  • Medicine
    Integrative and comparative biology
  • 2004
It is suggested that humans “discovered” ethanol while using fermentation as a food preservation technique and may have been predisposed to consume ethanol from previous and beneficial exposure to much lower doses or they may have become addicted to it at high concentrations because of fortuitous physiological responses.