Strong Internal and External Luminescence as Solar Cells Approach the Shockley–Queisser Limit

@article{Miller2011StrongIA,
  title={Strong Internal and External Luminescence as Solar Cells Approach the Shockley–Queisser Limit},
  author={Owen D. Miller and Eli Yablonovitch and Sarah R. Kurtz},
  journal={IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics},
  year={2011},
  volume={2},
  pages={303-311}
}
Absorbed sunlight in a solar cell produces electrons and holes. However, at the open-circuit condition, the carriers have no place to go. They build up in density, and ideally, they emit external luminescence that exactly balances the incoming sunlight. Any additional nonradiative recombination impairs the carrier density buildup, limiting the open-circuit voltage. At open circuit, efficient external luminescence is an indicator of low internal optical losses. Thus, efficient external… 

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