Stromatolites 3,400–3,500 Myr old from the North Pole area, Western Australia

  title={Stromatolites 3,400–3,500 Myr old from the North Pole area, Western Australia},
  author={Malcolm R. Walter and Roger Buick and J. S. R. Dunlop},
Stromatolites are the least controversial evidence of early life; they are organosedimentary structures resulting from the growth and metabolic activity of microorganisms1. Before this report, however, the oldest well established occurrence was in the 2,900–3,000 Myr Pongola Supergroup of South Africa2; five or six additional occurrences are known from the later Archean3. The only proposed example from older rocks is of a possibly stromatolitic microfabric from 3,500 Myr cherts in South Africa4… 
Stromatolites from the 3,300–3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa
A morphologically variable assemblage of stromatolites has been discovered in thin chert layers within the Fig Tree Group of the Swaziland Supergroup, South Africa. They are commonly low-relief,
Archean Stromatolites as Microbial Archives
Stromatolites are morphologically circumscribed accretionary growth structures with a primary lamination that is, or may be, biologically influenced (biogenic). They are found in Archean sedimentary
Morphology as an indictor of biogenicity for 3.5-3.2 Ga Fossil stromatolites from the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia
Stromatolites were recognised in 3.5–3.4Ga rocks from the Pilbara Craton 30 years ago (Walter et al. 1980; Lowe 1980), but their biogenicity has been cast in doubt by recent studies of abiogenic
Stromatolites at ∼3,500 Myr and a greenstone–granite unconformity in the Zimbabwean Archaean
Two controversial areas of geological endeavour are the establishment of the antiquity of life and the tectonic setting of greenstone sequences. We record here the recent discoveries in the Fort
Filamentous microfossils from the 3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa
The Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa, has long been regarded as a promising location for the Earth's oldest fossils because it includes some of the most ancient
Living Stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia: Microbial Inhabitants
An abundance of stromatolites throughout the Earth’s geological records has been widely documented. The oldest examples of these preserved stromatolites are dated to more than three billion years of
Early Archean (3.3-billion to 3.5-billion-year-old) microfossils from Warrawoona Group, Australia.
Cellularly preserved filamentous and colonial fossil microorganisms have been discovered in bedded carbonaceous cherts from the Early Archean Apex Basalt and Towers Formation of northwestern Western
Filamentous fossil bacteria from the Archean of Western Australia
Abstract Four morphotypes of structurally preserved, filamentous fossil bacteria have been discovered in petrographic thin sections of laminated, carbonaceous cherts from the ∼3500 Ma-old Warrawoona
Microfossil-like objects from the Archaean of Greenland: a cautionary note
Recent reports1–4 have described “yeast-like microfossils” (Isuasphaera isua Pflug2) in 3,800-Myr old5 metaquartzites from the Isua supracrustal belt of south-west Greenland. A biogenic
Evidence of Archean life: Stromatolites and microfossils
Abstract Fossil evidence of the existence of life during the Archean Eon of Earth history (>2500 Ma) is summarized. Data are outlined for 48 Archean deposits reported to contain biogenic


3-Gyr-old stromatolites from South Africa
WE report here a new record of early Precambrian stromatolites from the 3.0-Gyr Pongola Supergroup of South Africa (Fig. 1), which is exposed in parts of the southeastern Transvaal, Swaziland,
A new microfossil assemblage from the Archaean of Western Australia
THE oldest documented microfossils are from the ∼3,300 Myr BP Onverwacht Group of South Africa6–8. Here, we discuss the occurrence of a new assemblage of microfossils from a ∼3,500 Myr BP silicified
Stable isotopic compositions of early Archaean sulphate deposits of probable evaporitic and volcanogenic origins
SIGNIFICANT Archaean bedded sulphate deposits have been described only from the Pilbara Block (Western Australia)1,2, the Barberton Mountainland (South Africa)3–6 and southern India7. These are all
Archean microfossils showing cell division from the swaziland system of South Africa.
A newly discovered population of organic walled microstructures from the Swaziland System, South Africa, is considered to be biological on the following grounds: (i) the structures are carbonaceous
Combined structural and chemical analysis of 3,800-Myr-old microfossils
CELL-like inclusions detected in the cherty layers of a quartzite, which is part of the Isua series in South-west Greenland, consist of biological materials, according to analyses by Raman laser
On microbial contaminants, micropseudofossils, and the oldest records of life
Abstract Microbial contaminants may be introduced on outcrop as well as en route to or in the laboratory. Micropseudofossils may be natural or man-made. It is possible to recognize such misleading
3450-m.y.-old volcanics in the Archaean layered greenstone succession of the Pilbara Block, Western Australia
Abstract Zircon U-Pb systems from a single block sample of columnar dacite from the early Archaean Warrawoona Group from the layered “greenstone” succession of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia,
In view of the continuing controversy about the biogenicity of structurally preserved carbonaceous remains in Archaean rocks, carefully selected samples from the Onverwacht Group, 3.355 X 109 years
Primary productivity in an early Archean microbial ecosystem
Abstract The total amount of carbon deposited in the sediments of the Sheba Formation of the Fig Tree Group (Swaziland Sequence, South Africa) has been calculated to be 0.42% of the rock column.
Sulfur isotope studies in early Archaean sediments from Isua, West Greenland: Implications for the antiquity of bacterial sulfate reduction
The sulfur contents and sulfur isotope ratios (δ34S) have been measured for samples collected from the Isua area of West Greenland in an effort to place narrower limits on the time of the rise of