String theory.

  title={String theory.},
  author={Brian Randolph Greene and David R. Morrison and Joseph Polchinski},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  volume={95 19},
Particle physicists have spent much of this century grappling with one basic question in various forms: what are the fundamental degrees of freedom needed to describe nature, and what are the laws that govern their dynamics? First molecules, then atoms, then “elementary particles” such as protons and neutrons all have been revealed to be composite objects whose constituents could be studied as more fundamental degrees of freedom. The current “standard model” of particle physics—which is nearly… 

Universe and Matter conjectured as a 3-dimensional Lattice with Topological Singularities

One fundamental problem of modern physics is the search for a theory of everything able to explain the nature of space-time, what matter is and how matter interacts. There are various propositions,

The winding road to quantum gravity

This is the theory that the authors invoke when faced with phenomena, such as the big bang and the final state of black holes, where the Planck scale is reached and worlds of general relativity and quantum mechanics unavoidably meet.

The status of varying constants: a review of the physics, searches and implications

  • C. Martins
  • Physics
    Reports on progress in physics. Physical Society
  • 2017
Recent developments in tests of the stability of nature's fundamental couplings provide a direct handle on new physics: a detection of variations will be revolutionary, but even improved null results provide competitive constraints on a range of cosmological and particle physics paradigms.

Scale-Invariant Models of Gravity and Particle Physics and their Cosmological Implications

Currently, the best theoretical description of fundamental matter and its gravitational interaction is given by the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics and Einstein's theory of General Relativity

Symmetries of Everything

I argue that string theory can not be a serious candidate for the Theory of Everything, not because it lacks experimental support, but because of its algebraic shallowness. I describe two classes of

Connecting string/M theory to the electroweak scale and to LHC data

The Standard Model of particle physics explains (almost) all observed non‐gravitational microscopic phenomena but has many open theoretical questions. We are on the threshold of unravelling the

Constraining fundamental physics with cosmology

It is shown in three examples that future cosmological data may allow us to constrain fundamental physics in interesting ways. The first example illustrates that correlations in the polarization of

String Theory: An Overview

String theory is not, in contrast to general relativity and quantum field theory, a theory in the strict sense. There is, e.g., no axiomatic formulation and there is no set of defining equations of

String theory in the early universe

String theory is a rich and elegant framework which many believe furnishes a UVcomplete unified theory of the fundamental interactions, including gravity. However, if true, it holds at energy scales

Topics in theoretical particle physics and cosmology beyond the standard model

We review our understanding of spin-1 and spin-2 massless particles as mediators of long-range forces. We discuss how a quantum description of such particles that is compatible with Lorentz



The world as a hologram

According to ’t Hooft the combination of quantum mechanics and gravity requires the three‐dimensional world to be an image of data that can be stored on a two‐dimensional projection much like a


Quantization of Gauge Systems

This is a systematic study of the classical and quantum theories of gauge systems. It starts with Dirac's analysis showing that gauge theories are constrained Hamiltonian systems. The classical

Lectures on string theory

This book provides an introduction to string theory, at present one of the fastest-growing areas in theoretical high-energy physics. It introduces modern techniques and concepts, such as conformal

General Relativity; an Einstein Centenary Survey

List of contributors Preface 1. An introductory survey S. W. Hawking and W. Israel 2. The confrontation between gravitation theory and experiment C. M. Will 3. Gravitational-radiation experiments D.

String field theory in the temporal gauge.

The string field Hamiltonian for c=1-[6/m(m+1)] string theory in the temporal gauge is constructed and looks similar to the Kaku-Kikkawa Hamiltonian and may readily be generalized to cg1 cases.


For 2D string theory, the perturbative S-matrices are not well-defined due to a zero mode divergence. Although there exist formal procedures to make the integral convergent, their physical meanings

Phase transitions and critical phenomena

  • D. Landau
  • Physics
    Computing in Science & Engineering
  • 1999
The examination of phase transitions and critical phenomena has dominated statistical physics for the latter half of this century--there is a great theoretical challenge in solving special