Stretching: Mechanisms and Benefits for Sport Performance and Injury Prevention

@article{Weerapong2004StretchingMA,
  title={Stretching: Mechanisms and Benefits for Sport Performance and Injury Prevention},
  author={Pornratshanee Weerapong and Patria A. Hume and Gregory S. Kolt},
  journal={Physical Therapy Reviews},
  year={2004},
  volume={9},
  pages={189 - 206}
}
Abstract Stretching is usually performed before exercise in an attempt to enhance performance and reduce the risk of injury. Most stretching techniques (static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) are effective in increasing static flexibility as measured by joint range of motion, but the results for dynamic flexibility as measured by active and passive stiffness, are inconclusive. The mechanisms of various stretching techniques in terms of biomechanics and neurology, the… 
Stretching and Injury Prevention in Football: Current Perspectives
TLDR
The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on the role of stretching and/or increased flexibility on injury prevention in football, with presented results analyzed in the context of the up-to-date basic science research evidence.
Acute Effects of Dynamic Stretching on Muscle Flexibility and Performance: An Analysis of the Current Literature
TLDR
The need for future studies reporting homogeneous, clearly described stretching protocols is highlighted, and a clarified stretching terminology and methodology is proposed, to help reach a clear consensus on dynamic stretching.
A Study and analysis of the impact of stretching exercises on the flexibility of football players
This paper aims to examine the fact that good flexibility is known to bring positive benefits in the muscle and joints. It aids with injury prevention help to minimize muscle soreness and improves
The biomechanics of stretching
TLDR
The biomechanical effect of stretching exercises on skeletal muscles appears to be a significant increase in range of motion primarily due to increased stretch tolerance and significant reductions in most all forms of muscular performance.
The relevance of stretch intensity and position—a systematic review
Stretching exercises to increase the range of motion (ROM) of joints have been used by sports coaches and medical professionals for improving performance and rehabilitation. The ability of connective
Warm-Up and Stretching in the Prevention of Muscular Injury
TLDR
The research included here conveys that certain techniques and protocols have shown a positive outcome on deterring injuries, and a warm-up and stretching protocol should be implemented prior to physical activity.
The Acute Effects of Dynamic and Static Stretching on Jump Height and Muscle Activity
Abstract The purpose of this study was to provide a foundation for the methods of stretching in sports activities. The subjects were normal adults, the applied exercise was dynamic and static
A Systematic Literature Review of the Relationship Between Stretching and Athletic Injury Prevention
TLDR
Investigation of the effects of stretching on injury prevention and whether current stretching guidelines are beneficial for athletes found inconclusive outcomes; therefore, the application of stretching should be performed on an individual basis.
Effect of deep transverse friction massage vs stretching on football players’ performance
BACKGROUND Flexibility, agility and muscle strength are key factors to either win or lose a game. Recently the effect of a new technique, deep transverse friction massage (DTFM) on muscle
A Comparison of Static Stretching Versus Combined Static and Ballistic Stretching in Active Knee Range of Motion
TLDR
SS and CSBS are equally effective for improving active knee ROM, with a trend indicating CSBS showing only slightly greater differences may be due to limited time allowed to master the CSBS method, with no supervision during stretching sessions.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 103 REFERENCES
Flexibility and Its Effects on Sports Injury and Performance
SummaryFlexibility measures can be static [end of ROM (range of motion)], dynamic-passive (stiffness/compliance) or dynamic-active (muscle contracted, stiffness/compliance). Dynamic measures of
The warm-up procedure: to stretch or not to stretch. A brief review.
  • C. A. Smith
  • Education
    The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy
  • 1994
TLDR
A proposed model stretching regime is presented based on the literature reviewed and implications of stretching on muscle/tendon flexibility, minimizing injury, enhancing athletic performance, and generally preparing the athlete for exercise are discussed.
Influences of strength, stretching and circulatory exercises on flexibility parameters of the human hamstrings.
TLDR
The constancy of the muscle resting tension suggests that merely the subjects' tolerance to higher stretching strain brings about the enlargement of ROM after short-term stretching exercises.
Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: systematic review
TLDR
Stretching before or after exercising does not seem to confer a practically useful reduction in the risk of injury, but the generality of this finding needs testing.
Effects of warming up, massage, and stretching on range of motion and muscle strength in the lower extremity
TLDR
Stretching resulted in a significantly increased range of hip flexion/ extension, hip abduction, knee flexion, and ankle dor siflexion; the effect was significantly greater than that obtained by massage and warming up separately or combined.
Warm-up, stretching and massage diminish harmful effects of eccentric exercise.
TLDR
This combination of a warm-up, stretching and massage reduces some negative effects of eccentric exercise, but the results are inconsistent, since some parameters were significantly affected by the treatment whereas others were not, despite the expected efficacy of a combination of treatments.
Duration of Maintained Hamstring Flexibility After a One-Time, Modified Hold-Relax Stretching Protocol.
TLDR
It is suggested that a sequence of 5 modified hold-relax stretches produced significantly increased hamstring flexibility that lasted 6 minutes after the stretching protocol ended, which is a significant improvement in knee-extension range of motion in the experimental group.
A randomized trial of preexercise stretching for prevention of lower-limb injury.
TLDR
A typical muscle stretching protocol performed during preexercise warm-ups does not produce clinically meaningful reductions in risk of exercise-related injury in army recruits, but fitness may be an important, modifiable risk factor.
...
...