Stress-induced immunomodulation and the implications for health.

  title={Stress-induced immunomodulation and the implications for health.},
  author={Eric V. Yang and Ronald Glaser},
  journal={International immunopharmacology},
  volume={2 2-3},
There are complex bi-directional interactions among the central nervous system (CNS), the endocrine system, and the immune system. Although the mechanisms of this bi-directional communication is not yet fully understood, studies in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) have shown that stress, through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axes, can result in the dysregulation of the immune system. In this review, we discuss human studies and… CONTINUE READING


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