Stress during pregnancy alters the offspring hypothalamic, pituitary, adrenal, and testicular response to isolation on the day of weaning.


Subjecting pregnant female rats to situations that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have long-term effects on the development of the offspring. Restraint under bright lights is a common method of stressing pregnant females that results in consistent behavioral changes in the offspring. We investigated the effects of gestationally… (More)


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