Stress and immune modulation in fish.

  title={Stress and immune modulation in fish.},
  author={L. Tort},
  journal={Developmental and comparative immunology},
  volume={35 12},
Stress is an event that most animals experience and that induces a number of responses involving all three regulatory systems, neural, endocrine and immune. When the stressor is acute and short-term, the response pattern is stimulatory and the fish immune response shows an activating phase that specially enhances innate responses. If the stressor is chronic the immune response shows suppressive effects and therefore the chances of an infection may be enhanced. In addition, coping with the… CONTINUE READING
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