Stress Response of Working African Elephants to Transportation and Safari Adventures

  title={Stress Response of Working African Elephants to Transportation and Safari Adventures},
  author={Joshua J. Millspaugh and Tarryne Burke and Gus van Dyk and Rob Slotow and Brian E. Washburn and Rami J. Woods},
Abstract African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are intensively managed in southern Africa and are routinely translocated between reserves. Domesticated elephants are used for elephant-back safaris and interactions with guests. Understanding how elephants respond to such activities is critical because of welfare issues associated with both humans and elephants. We investigated the stress response (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolite secretion [FGM]) of working elephants in Letsatsing Game… 

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Noninvasive Stress and Reproductive Measures of Social and Ecological Pressures in Free‐Ranging African Elephants

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