Stress Response of Working African Elephants to Transportation and Safari Adventures

@inproceedings{Millspaugh2007StressRO,
  title={Stress Response of Working African Elephants to Transportation and Safari Adventures},
  author={Joshua J. Millspaugh and Tarryne Burke and Gus van Dyk and Rob Slotow and Brian E. Washburn and Rami J. Woods},
  year={2007}
}
Abstract African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are intensively managed in southern Africa and are routinely translocated between reserves. Domesticated elephants are used for elephant-back safaris and interactions with guests. Understanding how elephants respond to such activities is critical because of welfare issues associated with both humans and elephants. We investigated the stress response (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolite secretion [FGM]) of working elephants in Letsatsing Game… 

Translocation stress and faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in free-ranging African savanna elephants

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Assessment of the impact of translocation on wild Asian elephants in Peninsular Malaysia using faecal endocrinology and GPS technology finds that translocation does affect elephant physiology but this is in the opposite direction from that expected – a prolonged decrease rather than increase of adrenal activity.

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There was a positive correlation between baseline FGM value and duration of post-transfer increase in FGM concentration, and an individual's adrenocortical response to relocation was correlated with behavioral traits of elephants.

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The findings suggest that regardless of reintroduction site conditions, elephants and likely other species subject to reintroduction require an extended period of time to physiologically acclimatize to their new surroundings.

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Fecal samples from five group ranches in southern Kenya and two protected areas suggest that crop raiding may be related to stress in elephants, and molecular sexing to sex the individuals and radioimmunoassay kits determined the level of glucocorticoid metabolites in their dung.

Longitudinal study of Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, indicates intermittent shedding of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1 during pregnancy

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It is suggested that there is no clear relationship between shedding and pregnancy, and that behavioural stressors may be related to an increase in EEHV-1 shedding.

Tuberculosis serosurveillance and management practices of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area.

TLDR
This is the first study to assess TB seroprevalence and risk factors in working African elephants in their home range and will provide a foundation to develop guidelines to protect the health of captive and free-ranging elephants in the southern African context, as well as elephant handlers through simple interventions.
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