Stress, genes and the mechanism of programming the brain for later life

  title={Stress, genes and the mechanism of programming the brain for later life},
  author={Edo Ronald de Kloet and Rosana M. Sibug and Frans M. Helmerhorst and Mathias V. Schmidt},
  journal={Neuroscience \& Biobehavioral Reviews},

Plasticity of the epigenome during early-life stress.

Maternal separation in the rat : long-term effects of early life events on emotionality, drug response and neurobiology

The results do not provide support for the suggestion that MS manipulations causes enhanced anxiety or disruptions in endocrinology and neurochemistry in the adult rat, and could reflect a parallel to human conditions as relatively good psychosocial functioning is sometimes seen despite serious adverse experiences in childhood.

Age- and Sex-Dependent Effects of Early Life Stress on Hippocampal Neurogenesis

The data show that neurogenesis is affected by early life stress in an age- and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development.

Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms*

Evidence that exposure to both early- life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions is reviewed.

Pre- and post-natal stress programming : from genes to physiology

The results of this thesis suggest that early life stress can trigger both transient and permanent physiological changes, depending on the sex and the quality of both the pre- and post-hatching environment.

Early life stress and hippocampal neurogenesis in the neonate: sexual dimorphism, long term consequences and possible mediators

The immediate and late effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis in male and female rat pups are summarized, its later consequences in emotionality are compared, and some relevant mediator peptides that could be potentially involved in programming are highlighted.



Prenatal Stress Induces High Anxiety and Postnatal Handling Induces Low Anxiety in Adult Offspring: Correlation with Stress-Induced Corticosterone Secretion

Results suggest that individual differences in adult emotional status may be governed by early environmental factors; however, perinatal experiences are not effective in influencing adult memory capacity.

Quality of early care and buffering of neuroendocrine stress reactions: potential effects on the developing human brain.

  • M. Gunnar
  • Psychology, Biology
    Preventive medicine
  • 1998
Evidence for decreased reactivity of the HPA system developing over the first year of life is presented and it is argued that these data provide yet more support for the importance of fostering safe, secure care for children early in their development.

Early environmental regulation of forebrain glucocorticoid receptor gene expression: implications for adrenocortical responses to stress.

The findings indicate that the early postnatal environment alters the differentiation of hippocampal neurons, and these data provide examples of early environmental programming of neural systems.

Persistent, but Paradoxical, Effects on HPA Regulation of Infants Maternally Deprived at Different Ages.

Maternal deprivation during the neonatal period produces alterations in the ACTH response to a mild stress and sustained changes in GR transcript levels, dependent upon the age at which maternal deprivation is experienced.

Maternal Deprivation Effect on the Infant’s Neural Stress Markers Is Reversed by Tactile Stimulation and Feeding But Not by Suppressing Corticosterone

The changes in peripheral endocrine responses and in the brain cannot be attributed to the effect of elevated CORT concentrations, which are characteristic of the maternally deprived neonate, however, reinstating some components of the dams’ nurturing behavior can reverse the effects evoked by maternal deprivation.