Streptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiology and risk factors, evolution of antimicrobial resistance, and impact of vaccines

  title={Streptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiology and risk factors, evolution of antimicrobial resistance, and impact of vaccines},
  author={Joseph P. Lynch and George G. Zhanel},
  journal={Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine},
  • J. LynchG. Zhanel
  • Published 1 April 2010
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Purpose of review Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains an important cause of pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremias, and acute otitis media worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance among pneumococci has escalated dramatically over the past three decades, and is influenced by patterns of antibiotic use, population density, and spread of a few international clones. Recent findings Globally, antimicrobial resistance among pneumococci spread rapidly in the 1990s, reflecting dissemination of a few… 

Advances in pneumococcal antibiotic resistance

  • Jae-Hoon Song
  • Medicine, Biology
    Expert review of respiratory medicine
  • 2013
Widespread use of PCV13, which covers additional serotypes 3, 6A and 19A, may contribute to reduce the clonal spread of drug-resistant 19A pneumococci, which has emerged as an important cause of invasive pneumococcal diseases.

Evaluation of the Risk Factors for Antibiotic Resistance in Streptococcus Pneumoniae Cases in Georgia

This study looks at risk factors that increase a patients probability of contracting a drug resistant strain of S. pneumo, and suggests interventions need to be targeted towards young to middle aged adults.

Bacteraemic Pneumococcal Pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major bacterial cause of pneumonia, meningitis and otitis media, and continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality in individuals both in the

Challenging Approaches in Combating Streptococcus Pneumonia Infection

It seems that the best possible adopted strategy is to apply the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in management due to the following two reasons: reducing the bacterial antibiotic resistance rates and decreasing the prevalence of pneumoniae mortality and morbidity at global scale.

Prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes in adults ≥50 years of age

The study shows different antibiotic susceptibility patterns of S. pneumoniae as compared to other neighbouring regions in Asia, which makes it a challenging task to recommend further changes in the future vaccine.

Serotype Distribution and Characteristics of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Kunming, China

S. pneumoniae had low resistance rates to penicillin, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, vancomycin, and meropenem, and these antibiotics could be the first-line agents for children with pneumococcal infections in Kunming.

Changing Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance and Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Asian Countries: an Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Study

The most remarkable findings about the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in Asian countries after the introduction of PCV7 were the high prevalence of macrolide resistance and MDR and distinctive increases in serotype 19A.

The Role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Various aspects of pneumococcal CAP are reviewed, including the burden of pneumitiscal disease, risk factors forneumococcal infection, the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with pneumococCal CAP, the apparently pivotal role of pneumolysin, a major virulence factor of the pneumococcus, in the pathogenesis of severe infection and associated cardiac dysfunction, empiric antibiotic treatment for pneumococal CAP, as well as adjunctive therapies, specifically those which target pneumoly sin.

Pharmacotherapy for pneumococcal infections: an update

It is likely that optimal results will only be reached after the development of effective vaccines based on conserved proteins that are capable of preventing all pneumococcal infections, regardless of the serotype of the causative organism.



Streptococcus pneumoniae: does antimicrobial resistance matter?

  • J. LynchG. Zhanel
  • Biology, Medicine
    Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine
  • 2009
Several facets are discussed, including mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance among specific antibiotic classes, epidemiology and spread of antim antibiotic resistance determinants regionally and worldwide, risk factors for acquisition and dissemination of resistance, the impact of key international clones displaying multidrug resistance, and strategies to limit or curtail antimicrobial Resistance among this key respiratory tract pathogen.

Changing epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 2004-2005.

The penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae population has changed; most isolates are now closely related to 2 Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network clones that increased in prevalence from 1999-2000 to 2004-2005.

Streptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiology, risk factors, and strategies for prevention.

  • J. LynchG. Zhanel
  • Biology, Medicine
    Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine
  • 2009
The role of vaccines (both polysaccharide and conjugate) and other preventive strategies to limit this important and potentially lethal disease are discussed.

Increase in numbers of beta-lactam-resistant invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Brazil and the impact of conjugate vaccine coverage.

The investigation provided data on the trends of resistance to antimicrobial agents in S. pneumoniae collected in the country from 1993 to 2004, and emphasizes the need for conjugate pneumococcal vaccination.

Introduction and proliferation of multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A clones that cause acute otitis media in an unvaccinated population.

The introduction and proliferation of multidrug-resistant Sp19A occurred before the introduction of PCV7 and suggests that antibiotic use plays an important role in the community.

Temporal Trends of Antimicrobial Resistance and Clonality of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Finland, 2002 to 2006

The penicillin-resistant pneumococcal population in Finland is a combination of internationally recognized genotypes as well as novel ones, mirroring that in North America.

Antimicrobial Resistance among Isolates Causing Invasive Pneumococcal Disease before and after Licensure of Heptavalent Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine

Active surveillance of pneumococcal serotypes and antibiotic resistance using the new penicillin breakpoints is imperative to assess potential changes in the epidemiology of IPD.

Drug-resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates among Spanish middle aged and older adults with community-acquired pneumonia

Resistance to penicillin among Streptococcus pneumoniae remains high, but such resistance does not result in increased mortality in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.

High Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Asia (an ANSORP Study)

Multilocus sequence typing showed that the spread of the Taiwan19F clone and the Spain23F clone could be one of the major reasons for the rapid increases in antimicrobial resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in Asia.