Streptococcal M protein enhances TGF-beta production and increases surface IgA-positive B cells in vitro in IgA nephropathy.


BACKGROUND High serum levels and enhanced in vitro production of IgA are observed in more than half of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN); and transforming forming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is certain IgA class switching factor. On the other hand, macroscopic haematuria appears frequently with upper respiratory infection as tonsillitis in IgAN… (More)


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