Strepsipteran forewings are haltere-like organs of equilibrium

  title={Strepsipteran forewings are haltere-like organs of equilibrium},
  author={Waltraud Pix and Gerbera Nalbach and Jochen Zeil},
The forewings of male Strepsiptera share striking morphological similarities with the hindwing-derived halteres of flies [1-3] that are known to be gyroscopic organs of equilibrium [4-6]. In a combined study of functional morphology and behavior we show for the first time conclusively that the specialized forewings in male Strepsiptera play the same role as halteres in flies. Rotational movements of the animal produce Coriolis forces at the rapidly oscillating clubshaped forewings. These forces… 

Haltere morphology and campaniform sensilla arrangement across Diptera.

The female cephalothorax of Stylops ovinae Noskiewicz & Poluszyński, 1928 (Strepsiptera: Stylopidae)

External and internal features of the female cephalothorax of the strepsipteran species Stylops ovinae (Stylopidae) are described in detail and it is shown that despite of the loss of the digestive function, the digestive tract is not degenerated including a foregut with well-developed muscles.

Host-parasitoid associations in Strepsiptera.

Aspects of virulence, heterotrophic heteronomy in the family Myrmecolacidae, cryptic species, genomics, immune response, and behavior of stylopized hosts are discussed in this chapter.

The long-tongued Cretaceous scorpionfly Parapolycentropus Grimaldi and Rasnitsyn (Mecoptera: Pseudopolycentropodidae): New Data and Interpretations

The proboscis, claw, and sternite modifications indicate that Parapolycentropus fed on the hemolymph of small insects, not the blood of vertebrates.

Dipteran Halteres: Perspectives on Function and Integration for a Unique Sensory Organ.

The halteres of dipteran insects (true flies) are essential mechanosensory organs for flight, and current understanding of how they move, encode forces, and transmit information about these forces to the nervous system to guide behavior is examined.

The halteres of the blowfly Calliphora

Compensatory head reactions of flies to imposed body rotations in yaw, pitch and roll are quantitatively analysed and the haltere is characterized as a sense organ for maintaining equilibrium as well as a method to mimick rotational stimuli by subjecting the body of a flying fly to vibrations.

The First Twisted-Wing Parasitoids (Insecta: Strepsiptera) from the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Colorado

Two new species of Caenocholax (Strepsiptera: Myrmecolacidae) described here represent the first reported adult strepsipterans preserved as organic compression fossils and hint at an unappreciated fossil diversity of endoparasitic insects.

The halteres of the blowfly Calliphora

  • G. Nalbach
  • Physics, Education
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2004
From these considerations it is concluded that Coriolis forces play the major role in detecting body rotations.



Mechanosensory control of compensatory head roll during flight in the blowflyCalliphora erythrocephala Meig.

In the blowflyCalliphora flying stationarily in a wind tunnel, compensatory head movements were elicited by rolling the fly about its longitudinal axis, and the role of resilience of the neck skeleton, and that of different neck sense organs are discussed.

Review of the Order Strepsiptera

The morphology, biology and life history of the immature stages, the free‐living and the neotenic females and the free-living males of the order Strepsiptera and the morphological and physiological changes they cause to the host insect are outlined.

The Systematic Position of Strepsiptera (Insecta)

The Strepsiptera show plesiomorphic characters already lost in most of the other holometabolous insects and many very peculiar autapomorphies related to their specialized endoparasitism, and are considered to be a sister-group of the Coleoptera.

Die vermutliche Lösung der Halterenfrage

  • W. Buddenbrock
  • Chemistry
    Pflüger's Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere
  • 2005
Es ist yon sehr grossem Reiz, einem Problem naehzuforschen, das, wie die Halterenfrage, die Natufforscher nunmehr seit zwei Jahrhunderten besch~ftigt, hierbei yon den verschiedensten Seiten

Die strepsipteren-männchen als insekten mit halteren an stelle der vorderflügel

  • W. Ulrich
  • Biology
    Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere
  • 2004


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