Stratum Corneum Is an Effective Barrier to TiO2 and ZnO Nanoparticle Percutaneous Absorption

@article{Filipe2009StratumCI,
  title={Stratum Corneum Is an Effective Barrier to TiO2 and ZnO Nanoparticle Percutaneous Absorption},
  author={Paulo L Filipe and J.N. Silva and R. Silva and J L Cirne de Castro and Manuel Marques Gomes and Lu{\'i}s C. Alves and Rene C. Santus and Teresa Pinheiro},
  journal={Skin Pharmacology and Physiology},
  year={2009},
  volume={22},
  pages={266 - 275}
}
Background: There is increasing concern over the local and systemic side effects of TiO2 and ZnO coated nanoparticles widely used in sun blockers. Objective: To determine the localization and possible skin penetration of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, dispersed in 3 sunscreen formulations, under realistic in vivo conditions in normal and altered skin. Methods: Nuclear microscopy techniques provided spatially resolved quantitative analysis of Ti and Zn nanoparticle distributions in transversal… 

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