Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: chlorine atomc-atalysed destruction of ozone

  title={Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: chlorine atomc-atalysed destruction of ozone},
  author={M. Molina and F. Rowland},
Chlorofluoromethanes are being added to the environment in steadily increasing amounts. These compounds are chemically inert and may remain in the atmosphere for 40–150 years, and concentrations can be expected to reach 10 to 30 times present levels. Photodissociation of the Chlorofluoromethanes in the stratosphere produces significant amounts of chlorine atoms, and leads to the destruction of atmospheric ozone. 
Stratospheric Ozone Destruction by Man-Made Chlorofluoromethanes
Present usage levels of chlorofluoromethanes can lead to chlorine-catalyzed ozone destruction rates that will exceed natural sinks of ozone by 1985 or 1990. Expand
Reductions in ozone at high concentrations of stratospheric halogens
An increase in the concentration of inorganic chlorine to levels comparable to that of oxidized reactive nitrogen could cause a significant change in the chemistry of the lower stratosphere leadingExpand
Stratospheric CH4, HCl and ClO and the chlorine–ozone cycle
SINCE it was suggested1 that chlorine may influence stratospheric ozone balance, and that halocarbons can contribute significantly to the stratospheric chlorine content2–4 much attention has beenExpand
Methyl Chloroform: Impact on Stratospheric Ozone
Time scenarios based on past production figures and reasonable projections for future release rates lead to a steady-state ozone depletion due to this solvent about 20 percent as large as those resulting from the continuous release of chlorofluoromethanes at 1973 rates. Expand
Chlorofluoromethanes in the stratosphere and some possible consequences for ozone
Abstract Inert chlorofluoromethanes are used by man as refrigerants and aerosol propellants. These substances eventually escape and diffuse upward into the stratosphere. At great enough heights, u.v.Expand
Atomic Chlorine and the Chlorine Monoxide Radical in the Stratosphere: Three in situ Observations
Three simultaneous observations of atomic chlorine and the chlorine monoxide radical are reported which encompass the altitude interval between 25 and 45 kilometers, implying that chlorine compounds constitute an important part of the stratospheric ozone budget. Expand
Fluorine photochemistry in the stratosphere
The photochemistry of fluorine in the stratosphere is surveyed in order to estimate the effect on ozone of fluorine atoms released by the breakdown of chlorofluoromethanes. The catalytic efficiencyExpand
Hydrofluorocarbons and stratospheric ozone
Recognition of the adverse environmental impact of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)1 has led to an international agreement to cease their production. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are important CFCExpand
Perchloric acid: A possible sink for stratospheric chlorine
Abstract The possibility that chlorine may deplete stratospheric chlorine has received considerable attention recently. The only termination steps considered up to now involve HCl formation byExpand
Atmospheric halocarbons and stratospheric ozone
ODD chlorine1 is a more potent catalyst for the destruction of ozone than is odd nitrogen2. Molina and Rowland3 warn that chlorine released during the photochemical destruction of fluorocarbonsExpand


Reduction of Stratospheric Ozone by Nitrogen Oxide Catalysts from Supersonic Transport Exhaust
The projected increase in stratospheric oxides of nitrogen could reduce the ozone shield by about a factor of 2, thus permitting the harsh radiation below 300 nanometers to permeate the lower atmosphere. Expand
Chlorofluorocarbons in the Atmosphere
THE chlorofluorocarbon CCl3F (trichlorofluoromethane) occurs in the atmosphere1, and seems especially attractive for use as a tracer of air and water mass movements2,3. Its use as aExpand
Halogenated Hydrocarbons in and over the Atlantic
DURING the past few decades the production of the chlorofluorocarbons, the propellant solvents for aerosol dispensers, has grown exponentially. R. L. McCarthy (unpublished) estimates that theExpand
Odd Nitrogen in the Atmosphere
Abstract Sources and sinks for atmospheric odd nitrogen are discussed and detailed calculations are presented for the altitude range 0–80 km. The mixing ratio of odd nitrogen is approximately 2×10−9Expand
Atmospheric Ozone: Possible Impact of Stratospheric Aviation
Abstract Models for stratosphere temperature and ozone are developed and shown to give good agreement with observational data. The atmosphere is in local radiative equilibrium at heights above aboutExpand
Atmospheric Trace Gases in the Southern Hemisphere
ATMOSPHERIC trace gases can be used in the study of many worldwide problems. Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been suggested as a cause of ground level global warming through theExpand
Atmospheric Fluorine Compounds as Indicators of Air Movements
GASEOUS fluorine compounds are supposed not to occur naturally in the atmosphere. Volatile fluorine compounds would not be expected to result from chemical equilibria between fluorine compounds onExpand
Ozone production rates in an oxygen‐hydrogen‐nitrogen oxide atmosphere
The distribution of the compounds NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, and HNO3 has been calculated for different choices of relevant parameters, the values of which are uncertain. An appreciable part of the NO andExpand
Photochemistry of the lower troposphere
Abstract A steady state model of the chemistry in the lower troposphere is developed in which the number densities of major atmospheric species, N2, O2, H2O, CH4, CO, O3, N2O, NH3 and NO + NO2 areExpand
Atmospheric CH4, CO, and CO2
The chemistry of atmospheric CH4, CO, and CO2 is treated with a one-dimensional model incorporating the effects of eddy diffusion in the altitude region of 0–120 km. Methane is well mixed up to aboutExpand