Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility.

  title={Strategy and society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility.},
  author={Michael E. Porter and Mark R. Kramer},
  journal={Harvard business review},
  volume={84 12},
          78-92, 163
Governments, activists, and the media have become adept at holding companies to account for the social consequences of their actions. In response, corporate social responsibility has emerged as an inescapable priority for business leaders in every country. Frequently, though, CSR efforts are counterproductive, for two reasons. First, they pit business against society, when in reality the two are interdependent. Second, they pressure companies to think of corporate social responsibility in… 
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For a more complete discussion of the importance of competitive context and the diamond
  • HBR December
  • 2002
An early discussion of the idea of CSR as an opportunity rather than a cost can be found in
  • Corporate Social Opportunity
  • 2004