Neonatal injection of the ACTH4-10 fragment (5 micrograms daily for five days) caused genotype-dependent changes in concentrations of some monoaminergic neuromediators and their metabolites in hippocampus and brain stem of adult CBA and 101/HY mice. The catecholaminergic neurons increased in number in hypothalamic zona incerta of adult 101/HY mice. Neonatal injection of the peptide caused also genotype-dependent changes in the exploratory behavior of adult animals. Sound sensitivity was reduced in the 101/HY mice, whereas no sensitivity was revealed in both control and experimental groups of the CBA mice. The effects discovered were suggested to be caused by changes in neuronal differentiation.