Storms and the Depletion of Ammonia in Jupiter: II. Explaining the Juno Observations

  title={Storms and the Depletion of Ammonia in Jupiter: II. Explaining the Juno Observations},
  author={Tristan Guillot and Cheng Li and Scott J. Bolton and Shannon T. Brown and Andrew P. Ingersoll and Michael A. Janssen and Steven M. Levin and Jonathan I. Lunine and Glenn S. Orton and Paul G. Steffes and David J. Stevenson},
  journal={Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets},
  • T. Guillot, Cheng Li, D. Stevenson
  • Published 14 February 2020
  • Physics, Environmental Science, Geology
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets
Observations of Jupiter's deep atmosphere by the Juno spacecraft have revealed several puzzling facts: The concentration of ammonia is variable down to pressures of tens of bars and is strongly dependent on latitude. While most latitudes exhibit a low abundance, the Equatorial Zone of Jupiter has an abundance of ammonia that is high and nearly uniform with depth. In parallel, the Equatorial Zone is peculiar for its absence of lightning, which is otherwise prevalent most everywhere else on the… 
The turbulent dynamics of Jupiter’s and Saturn’s weather layers: order out of chaos?
The weather layers of the gas giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, comprise the shallow atmospheric layers that are influenced energetically by a combination of incoming solar radiation and localised
Convective storms and atmospheric vertical structure in Uranus and Neptune
A combination of orbital and in situ data will be required to understand convection and its role in atmospheric dynamics in the ice giants, and by extension, in hydrogen atmospheres including Jupiter, Saturn and giant exoplanets.
Jupiter's Temperate Belt/Zone Contrasts Revealed at Depth by Juno Microwave Observations
Juno microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of Jupiter's midlatitudes reveal a strong correlation between brightness temperature contrasts and zonal winds, confirming that the banded structure
Simulations of convective storms in Jupiter with an updated version of a three-dimensional model of moist convection
<p>Moist convective storms powered by the release of latent heat in rising air parcels are a key element of the meteorology of the Gas Giants [1] and are suspected to play also an important role in
Evidence for Multiple Ferrel‐Like Cells on Jupiter
Jupiter's atmosphere is dominated by multiple jet streams which are strongly tied to its 3D atmospheric circulation. Lacking a rigid bottom boundary, several models exist for how the meridional
The Origin and Evolution of Saturn: A Post-Cassini Perspective
The Saturn system has been investigated extensively since the early 1970s, with the bulk of these data generated by the Cassini-Huygens Mission between 2004 and 2017. A major thrust of those
Jupiter's Overturning Circulation: Breaking Waves Take the Place of Solid Boundaries
An additional role is suggested for the eddies, which is to generate waves that propagate both up and down from the cloud layer, to replace the friction forces at solid boundaries that enable overturning circulations on terrestrial planets.
The Physics of Falling Raindrops in Diverse Planetary Atmospheres
The evolution of a single raindrop falling below a cloud is governed by fluid dynamics and thermodynamics fundamentally transferable to planetary atmospheres beyond modern Earth's. Here, we show how


Storms and the Depletion of Ammonia in Jupiter: I. Microphysics of “Mushballs”
Microwave observations by the Juno spacecraft have shown that, contrary to expectations, the concentration of ammonia is still variable down to pressures of tens of bars in Jupiter. We show that
Observation of moist convection in Jupiter's atmosphere
It is concluded that moist convection—similar to large clusters of thunderstorm cells on the Earth—is a dominant factor in converting heat flow into kinetic energy in the jovian atmosphere.
The water abundance in Jupiter’s equatorial zone
Oxygen is the most common element after hydrogen and helium in Jupiter’s atmosphere, and may have been the primary condensable (as water ice) in the protoplanetary disk. Prior to the Juno mission, in
The distribution of ammonia on Jupiter from a preliminary inversion of Juno microwave radiometer data
The Juno microwave radiometer measured the thermal emission from Jupiter's atmosphere from the cloud tops at about 1 bar to as deep as a hundred bars of pressure during its first flyby over Jupiter
Depth of a strong jovian jet from a planetary-scale disturbance driven by storms
Observations and modelling of two plumes in Jupiter's atmosphere that erupted at the same latitude as the strongest jet and left in their wake a turbulent planetary-scale disturbance containing red aerosols conclude that the data are consistent only with a wind that extends well below the level where solar radiation is deposited.
How Well Do We Understand the Belt/Zone Circulation of Giant Planet Atmospheres?
This review is an attempt to reconcile the observed properties of belts and zones with (i) the meridional overturning inferred from the convergence of eddy angular momentum into the eastward zonal jets at the cloud level on Jupiter and Saturn and the prevalence of moist convective activity in belts; and (ii) the opposingMeridional motions inferredfrom the upper tropospheric temperature structure, which implies decay and dissipation of the zonal Jets with altitude above the clouds.
Moist convection in hydrogen atmospheres and the frequency of Saturn's giant storms
A giant storm erupted on Saturn in December 2010. It produced intense lightning and cloud disturbances and encircled the planet in six months. Six giant storms—also called Great White Spots—have been
Water, ammonia, and H2S mixing ratios in Jupiter's five-micron hot spots: A dynamical model
On the water abundance in the atmosphere of Jupiter