Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Lipid Metabolism: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Potential
One of the numerous calcium-involving processes in mammalian cells is store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) -- the process in which depletion of calcium stores in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces calcium influx from the extracellular space. Previously supposed to function only in non-excitable cells, SOCE is now known to play a role also in such excitable cells as neurons, muscles and neuroendocrine cells and is found in many different cell types. SOCE participates not only in processes dependent on ER calcium level but also specifically regulates some important processes such as cAMP production, T lymphocyte activation or induction of long-term potentiation. Impairment of SOCE can be an element of numerous disorders such as acute pancreatitis, primary immunodeficiency and, since it can take part in apoptosis or cell cycle regulation, SOCE may also be partially responsible for such serious disorders as Alzheimer disease and many types of cancer. Even disturbances in the 'servant' role of maintaining ER calcium level may cause serious effects because they can lead to ER homeostasis disturbance, influencing gene expression, protein synthesis and processing, and the cell cycle.