Stochasticity in economic losses increases the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity

@article{dosSantos2015StochasticityIE,
  title={Stochasticity in economic losses increases the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity},
  author={Miguel dos Santos and Sarah Plac{\`i} and Claus Wedekind},
  journal={Scientific Reports},
  year={2015},
  volume={5}
}
Recent theory predicts harsh and stochastic conditions to generally promote the evolution of cooperation. Here, we test experimentally whether stochasticity in economic losses also affects the value of reputation in indirect reciprocity, a type of cooperation that is very typical for humans. We used a repeated helping game with observers. One subject (the “Unlucky”) lost some money, another one (the “Passer-by”) could reduce this loss by accepting a cost to herself, thereby building up a… 

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 71 REFERENCES

Reputation helps solve the ‘tragedy of the commons’

TLDR
It is shown, through alternating rounds of public goods and indirect reciprocity games, that the need to maintain reputation for indirect reciprocities maintains contributions to the public good at an unexpectedly high level, but if rounds of indirect reciprocation are not expected, then contributions toThe public good drop quickly to zero.

The value of reputation

TLDR
The more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market, and these findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice.

The evolution of punishment through reputation

TLDR
It is shown analytically that punishment can lead to long-term benefits if it influences one's reputation and thereby makes the punisher more likely to receive help in future interactions and that experiments investigating the beneficial effects of punishment in humans should include reputation as an explicit feature.

Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment

TLDR
It is shown how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game and provided evidence that reputational concerns are driving the observability effect.

Increased Costs of Cooperation Help Cooperators in the Long Run

TLDR
How harsh environments select for cooperative phenotypes is demonstrated and an explanation for the adoption of cooperative breeding strategies in human evolution is suggested and the importance of variable population size and the role of socio-spatial organization in harsh environments is highlighted.

Partner choice creates competitive altruism in humans

TLDR
This work shows that people actively compete to be more generous than others when they can benefit from being chosen for cooperative partnerships, and the most generous people are correspondingly chosen more often as cooperative partners.

Evolution of cooperation through indirect reciprocity

TLDR
This puzzle investigates indirect reciprocity in simulations based on an island model and finds that the strategy of aiming for ‘good standing’ has superior properties, which can be an evolutionarily stable strategy and, even if not, it usually beats image scoring.

Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring

TLDR
It is proposed that the emergence of indirect reciprocity was a decisive step for the evolution of human societies and the probability of knowing the ‘image’ of the recipient must exceed the cost-to-benefit ratio of the altruistic act.

Indirect reciprocity and strategic reputation building in an experimental helping game

TLDR
It is found that while pure indirect reciprocity appears to be important, the helping choice seems to be influenced at least as much by strategic considerations as it is influenced by direct reciprocity.
...