Opioid peptides leu-enkephalin, a synthetic analog of enkephalin dalargin and an opiate receptor blocker naloxone were studied for their morphological effect on the cells of dissociated cultures of rat spinal cord. Low density seeding of cells (3.10(5);6.10(5) cells/ml) on collagen substrate was performed to document that opioid peptides increase the number of cultured cells and neurite outgrowth and lead to the activation of the initiated processes of aggregate formation. Upon higher density of plating (5.10(6) cells/ml) with poly-L-lysine as a substrate, activation of the aggregate formation process was demonstrated, both opioid peptides and naloxone leading to an increase in the size of aggregates. Statistical treatment of the results obtained in this set of experiments documented that leu-enkephalin, dalargin and naloxone increased 2.2-, 2.2-2.6-, 2.4-fold, respectively, the size of aggregates compared to the control, i.e. the reaction of spinal cord cells to opioid peptides and opiate receptor blocker naloxon was unidirected. The total effect of opioid peptides and naloxon resulted in a 3.6-fold increase in the size of the aggregates compared to the control. The data obtained in this study allow the assumption that opioid peptides and naloxone, while activating spinal cord cells via receptors of a different type, manifest the properties of factors thus increasing survival and adhesion of spinal cord cells in culture.