Still Rooted in Maastricht: EU External Relations as a ‘Third-generation Hybrid’

  title={Still Rooted in Maastricht: EU External Relations as a ‘Third-generation Hybrid’},
  author={Michael. Smith},
  journal={Journal of European Integration},
  pages={699 - 715}
  • Michael. Smith
  • Published 29 October 2012
  • Political Science
  • Journal of European Integration
Abstract This article argues that EU external relations since the Maastricht Treaty have constituted the Union as a hybrid international actor, reflecting a number of tensions built into the roots of the treaty. These tensions — reflected in the international roles and status of the EU — arise from the logics expressed in institutions and policies, and the ways in which those logics interact with each other when confronted with situations in which diplomatic, economic and security concerns are… 

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