Sticks, Stones, and Molotov Cocktails: Unarmed Collective Violence and Democratization

  title={Sticks, Stones, and Molotov Cocktails: Unarmed Collective Violence and Democratization},
  author={Mohammad Ali Kadivar and Neil Ketchley},
The literature on civil resistance finds that nonviolent campaigns are more likely to succeed than violent insurgencies. A parallel literature on democratization poses mass mobilization as exogenous to political liberalization. Contributing to both literatures, we propose the category of unarmed collective violence to capture an empirically recurring form of unruly collective action used by civilians and then use a mixed methods research design to examine its impact on democratization. An event… 


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