author={Herbert B. Peterson},
  journal={Obstetrics \& Gynecology},
  • H. Peterson
  • Published 1 January 2008
  • Medicine
  • Obstetrics & Gynecology
Worldwide, sterilization (tubal sterilization and vasectomy) is used by more people than any other method of contraception. All techniques of tubal sterilization in widespread use in the United States have low risks of surgical complications. Although tubal sterilization is highly effective, the risk of pregnancy varies by age and method of occlusion. Pregnancies can occur many years after the procedure, and when they do, the risk of ectopic gestation is high. There is now strong evidence… 
5 Citations
ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 208: Benefits and Risks of Sterilization.
  • Medicine
    Obstetrics and gynecology
  • 2019
The purpose of this document is to review the evidence for the safety and effectiveness of female sterilization in comparison with male sterilization and other forms of contraception.
Patient-Centered Safety Outcomes After Hysteroscopic Compared With Laparoscopic Sterilization.
Compared with laparoscopic surgical sterilization, hysteroscopic sterilization was followed by more claims for repeat sterilization procedures and abnormal uterine bleeding, but fewer procedural complications and fewer claims for pelvic or abdominal pain.
High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis in Elder Women With Tubal Ligation: Result From a Community-Based Study in Shandong, China
Tubal ligation may be associated with a higher prevalence of aICAS in Chinese elderly women, and provides a new perspective to study the epidemiological characteristics of ICAS.


The risk of ectopic pregnancy after tubal sterilization. U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group.
A history of tubal sterilization does not rule out the possibility of ectopic pregnancy, even many years after the procedure, and the cumulative probability varied substantially according to the method of sterilization and the woman's age at the time of sterilizations.
Tubal sterilization in the United States, 1994-1996.
Outpatient tubal sterilizations and procedures using laparoscopy have increased substantially since the last comprehensive analysis of tubal Sterilization in 1987, an indication of the effect of technical advances on the provision of this service.
The risk of menstrual abnormalities after tubal sterilization. U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group.
Women who have undergone tubal sterilization are no more likely than other women to have menstrual abnormalities, and those who had had very heavy bleeding at base line were more likely to report decreased bleeding.
Tubal Sterilization and Long‐Term Risk of Hysterectomy: Findings from the United States Collaborative Review of Sterilization
Although women with gynecologic disorders before tubal sterilization were at greater risk of hysterectomy during the 14 years after sterilization than were women without these disorders, the majority of sterilized women in both categories did not undergo subsequent hystEREctomy.
Pregnancy after tubal sterilization with bipolar electrocoagulation. U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group.
The long-term probability of pregnancy after tubal sterilization with bipolar coagulation was very low when three or more sites of the fallopian tube were coagulated.