The onset of post-operative corneal melting and necrotizing scleritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and collagen vascular disease who undergo cataract surgery can have devastating ocular and systemic consequences. Even though ocular surface factors such as sicca and surgical trauma are among the important variables that contribute to this entities, signs and symptoms of systemic disease need to be thoroughly investigated in order to prevent life-threatening complications associated with these ocular manifestations. The management of surgical induced corneal melting and necrotizing scleritis in these patients, include local therapy and in most instances, systemic immuno-modulation. Moreover, the development of corneal melting and necrotizing scleritis in an otherwise "healthy" patient after uncomplicated cataract surgery, can be the first manifestation of a serious occult systemic disease. Therefore, an aggressive approach regarding the diagnosis, workup and treatment should be initiated by the ophthalmologist in order to maximize a successful ophthalmic and medical outcome.