Stereotypic and self‐injurious behavior in rhesus macaques: A survey and retrospective analysis of environment and early experience

  title={Stereotypic and self‐injurious behavior in rhesus macaques: A survey and retrospective analysis of environment and early experience},
  author={Corrine K Lutz and Arnold D. Well and Melinda A Novak},
  journal={American Journal of Primatology},
Abnormal behavior in captive rhesus monkeys can range from active whole‐body and self‐directed stereotypies to self‐injurious behavior (SIB). Although abnormal behaviors are common in singly‐housed rhesus monkeys, the type and frequency of these behaviors are highly variable across individual animals, and the factors influencing them are equally varied. The purpose of this investigation was to survey abnormal behavior in a large population of rhesus macaques, to characterize the relationship… 

Risk factors for stereotypic behavior and self‐biting in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): Animal's history, current environment, and personality

It is proposed that an animal's MSB is related to its predisposition for an active personality, with active animals expressing higher rates of MSB.

Self‐Injurious behavior in rhesus macaques: Issues and challenges

  • M. Novak
  • Psychology
    American journal of primatology
  • 2020
The environmental events that triggered episodes of SIB in monkeys with the disorder were examined and three models that might explain the reinforcement contingencies associated with SIB were evaluated, including tension reduction, self‐stimulation, and social communication.

Abnormal behavior and associated risk factors in captive baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.)

Although the baboons in this study exhibited relatively low levels of abnormal behavior, the risk factors for these behaviors appear to remain consistent across primate species.

Extinction deficits in male rhesus macaques with a history of self‐injurious behavior

The presence of extinction deficits suggests that SIB may persist in some monkeys because they lack the ability to regulate the intensity of their biting behavior.

Self-injurious Behavior in Zoo Primates

It is concluded that SIB is not a major problem in zoo primates, and responses indicated that though SIB occurred across a range of primate species, its incidence was very low.

Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with self‐injurious behavior show less behavioral anxiety during the human intruder test

Self‐injurious behavior (SIB) has been linked to anxiety in the human literature, but relatively few studies have explored this link in rhesus macaques and, contrary to predictions, monkeys with SIB did not show higher levels of anxious behavior compared to controls.

Reviewing Self-Injuries Behavior in Macaques: The Role of Early Experience and Genetics in an Integrated Non-Human Model

The diathesis-stress model is proposed, which suggests that monkeys who carry short 5-HTT allele and are reared with their peers (without their mother) suffer from neurobiological problems.



Self‐injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys: New insights into its etiology, physiology, and treatment

  • M. Novak
  • Biology, Psychology
    American journal of primatology
  • 2003
It is suggested that SIB may be a coping strategy to reduce arousal, and biting appears to rapidly lower an escalating heart rate, in rhesus monkeys.

Factors predicting increased incidence of abnormal behavior in male pigtailed macaques

The results reinforce the importance of tactile social contact during juvenility for the prevention of abnormal behavior in social primates and suggest that self‐directed abnormal behaviors and locomotor stereotypies have different etiologies.

Behavioral effects of enrichment on pair‐housed juvenile rhesus monkeys

Environmental enhancers were frequently utilized, and led to relatively small changes in behavior between control and enriched subjects, suggesting that the presence of a partner for juvenile rhesus monkeys acts as a form of enrichment that may dilute the effects of inanimate environmental enhancements.

Abnormal Behavior in Non-Isolate-Reared Rhesus Monkeys

The research reported here documents the existence of self-directed aggression in non-isolate-reared rhesus monkeys and the use of socially reared animals as models for the study ofSelf- directed aggression is suggested as an alternative to theUse of isolate- reared Ss.

Variables influencing the origins of diverse abnormal behaviors in a large sample of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

The association of some abnormal behaviors with mother‐rearing suggests that some form of social learning may be involved in the origin of some of these behavior patterns.

Stereotyped Behavior and Cage Size

This experiment was designed to study changes in rhesus monkey activity that accompany systematic variation of cage size and found that changes in the physical dimensions of the spatial environment can be accompanied by a marked change in the form of behavior.

Effects of puzzle feeders on pathological behavior in individually housed rhesus monkeys

Puzzle feeders were more effective than treats alone in alleviating whole body stereotypies and self‐biting was unchanged through all phases, and long‐term effects on abnormal behavior were assessed by comparing behavior during the feeder phase to baseline periods and to a phase in which the monkeys were provisioned with treats placed directly into their food box.

Stereotypy in monkeys and humans

If stereotypy is regarded as a consequence of failure to use sensory input to direct behaviour, therapeutic regimes designed to stimulate responsive behaviours and social interactions are more likely to be effective in the long run than direct attempts to suppress stereotypy.

The reduction of abnormal behaviors in individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with a foraging/grooming board

A new environmental enrichment device, termed a “foraging/grooming board,” was presented to 8 individually housed rhesus monkeys for the explicit purpose of reducing the level of aberrant behaviors