Stereotyped yawning responses induced by electrical and chemical stimulation of paraventricular nucleus of the rat.

Yawning was evoked by electrical or chemical stimulation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. To evaluate physiological aspects of yawning, we monitored polygraphic measures as follows; a coordinated motor pattern of yawning was assessed by monitoring breathing [intercostal electromyogram (EMG)], mouth opening… (More)
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