Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.

  title={Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.},
  author={Claude M. Steele and Joshua Aronson},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={69 5},
  • C. Steele, J. Aronson
  • Published 1 November 1995
  • Psychology
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. Studies 1 and 2 varied the stereotype vulnerability of Black participants taking a difficult verbal test by varying whether or not their performance was ostensibly diagnostic of ability, and thus, whether or not they were at risk of fulfilling the racial stereotype about their intellectual ability. Reflecting the pressure of this vulnerability, Blacks underperformed in relation to… 

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