Stereotype Threat in the Classroom: Dejection Mediates the Disrupting Threat Effect on Women’s Math Performance

  title={Stereotype Threat in the Classroom: Dejection Mediates the Disrupting Threat Effect on Women’s Math Performance},
  author={Johannes Keller and Dirk Dauenheimer},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={371 - 381}
Research on stereotype threat, which is defined as the risk of confirming a negative stereotypic expectation about one’s group, has demonstrated that the applicability of negative stereotypes disrupts the performance of stigmatized social groups. While it has been shown that a reduction of stereotype threat leads to improved performance by members of stigmatized groups, there is a lack of clear-cut findings about the mediating processes. The aim of the present study is to provide a better… 
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Background: Over the past two decades there has been an upsurge of research documenting the deleterious effects that stereotype threat exerts on females’ mathematical performance. However, there is
Stereotype threat posits that when individuals are primed about a fixed characteristic of theirs that is negatively stereotyped in relation to a task (i.e., girls cannot do math), subsequent
Blatant Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance: Self-Handicapping as a Strategic Means to Cope with Obtrusive Negative Performance Expectations
Research on the effect of stereotype threat has consistently shown that a reduction of stereotype threat due to decreased salience of negative stereotypic expectations in testing situations results
Stereotype threat in classroom settings: the interactive effect of domain identification, task difficulty and stereotype threat on female students' maths performance.
  • J. Keller
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The British journal of educational psychology
  • 2007
Evidence is provided that domain identification and the difficulty level of test items moderate stereotype threat effects on female students' maths performance, suggesting two important factors need to be considered in the attempt to understand the impact of stereotype threat on performance.
The contributions of stereotype threat research to social psychology
Stereotype threat describes the experience of being viewed through the lens of a negative stereotype. This social psychological phenomenon demonstrates the deleterious effects that negative societal
Stereotype threat in India: Gender and leadership choices
Stereotype threat is a psychosocial dilemma experienced by members of a negatively stereotyped group in situations where they fear they may confirm the stereotype. This study examined the phenomenon
An examination of stereotype threat effects on girls' mathematics performance.
No evidence that the mathematics performance of school-age girls was impacted by stereotype threat, and the possibility that the literature regarding stereotype threat in children is subject to publication bias is addressed.
Stereotype Threat and Stereotype Reactance: The Effect of Direct and Indirect Stereotype Manipulations on Performance of Palestinian Citizens of Israel on Achievement Tests
The role of stereotype threat in performance of Palestinian citizens of Israel (PCI) on the psychometric exam (parallel to the SAT in the United States) was investigated. Two experiments, conducted
The relationship between gender identity and the effects of stereotype threat on women's math performance
Research in the area of stereotype threat and women’s math performance documents that women underperform under conditions of stereotype threat. Futher, those who identify more with the group under


Stereotype Threat: Are Lower Status and History of Stigmatization Preconditions of Stereotype Threat?
This research extended stereotype-threat effects outside of the academic domain and to a nonstigmatized group. Female and male students performed three decision tasks: lexical, valence, and affective
When White Men Can't Do Math: Necessary and Sufficient Factors in Stereotype Threat
Abstract Research on “stereotype threat” (Aronson, Quinn, & Spencer, 1998; Steele, 1997; Steele & Aronson, 1995) suggests that the social stigma of intellectual inferiority borne by certain cultural
A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.
  • C. Steele
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American psychologist
  • 1997
Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups, that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.
Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance
Abstract When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicament stereotype threat and hypothesize that
Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.
The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed and mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic.
Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance
Recent studies have documented that performance in a domain is hindered when individuals feel that a sociocultural group to which they belong is negatively stereotyped in that domain. We report that
Extending the Concept of Stereotype Threat to Social Class: The Intellectual Underperformance of Students from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds
Students from poorer families perform worse on intellectual tasks than do other students. The authors tested the stereotype threat hypothesis as a possible explanation for this difference. Students
Battle of the sexes: gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations.
The authors examined how gender stereotypes affect negotiation performance and examined the cognitive processes involved in stereotype reactance and the conditions under which cooperative behaviors between men and women can be promoted at the bargaining table (by activating a shared identity that transcends gender).
Activating stereotypes undermines task performance expectations
According to the theory of stereotype threat (C. M. Steele, 1997; C. M. Steele & J. Aronson, 1995), activating stereotypes about a group's typical underperformance on a task can undermine a group
Improving memory in old age through implicit self-stereotyping.
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  • Medicine
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1996
The potential for memory improvement in old individuals when the negative stereotypes of aging that dominate the American culture are shifted to more positive stereotypes is highlighted.